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Hunting for the LCT-13910*T allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages suggests its absence in dairying LBK people entering the Kuyavia region in the 8th millennium BP.

Witas HW, Płoszaj T, Jędrychowska-Dańska K, Witas PJ, Masłowska A, Jerszyńska B, Kozłowski T, Osipowicz G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP.We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals.None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele's presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

No MeSH data available.


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Location of the explored Polish archaeological sites.
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pone.0122384.g001: Location of the explored Polish archaeological sites.

Mentions: Teeth from 231 individuals living in different periods between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages were collected. 131 individuals provided HVR-I mtDNA amplifiable sequences, including 80 medieval ones, 34 from the Roman period, 8 from the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age and 9 Neolithic ones. LCT-13910C>T sequence was identified in all except 6 medieval individuals and 3 from the Roman period. The yield of DNA isolation procedure at each archaeological site is presented in Table A in S1 File. The studied samples originated from four medieval sites (Stary Brześć Kujawski-4/14 specimens, Gruczno/15, Cedynia/35, Śródka/16), two representing the Roman period—Wielbark culture (Rogowo/21, Linowo/13), 8 from the Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age—Hallstatt culture (Gzin/6, Pędzewo/1, Grodno/1) and 9 from Neolithic sites (Grabkowo/4, Kowal/1, Osłonki/1—local Globular Amphora culture; Konary/1, Osłonki/2—Lengyel culture). Data from Cedynia and Śródka are used as a reference for medieval sites. Both these sites are of quite short history (Cedynia 1.2–1.1 Ka BP, Śródka 1.0–0.9 BP) and are located outside Kuyavia/the Chełmno land [21,22]. Cedynia lies at the western border of today’s Poland, approx. 400 km north-west, while Śródka 160 km west from the region. SBK-4, as well as one of the sites dated to the Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age, i.e. Grodno, together with all the studied Neolithic sites, are closely situated within an area approx. 20 km in diameter in the center of Kuyavia. Other sites, i.e. medieval Gruczno, two remaining sites of the Hallstatt culture, i.e. Gzin and Pędzewo, as well as both sites from the Roman period (Wielbark culture), are all located within a short distance from each other, mostly in the area belonging to the Chełmno land today. All studied archaeological sites are situated within the area of approx. 120 km in diameter (Fig. 1). Burials from the Middle Ages (1.0–0.6 Ka BP) and the Roman period (1.8–1.7 Ka BP) were dated according to the graves’ equipment, while the age of the Neolithic skeletons was estimated with radiocarbon dating (Table B in S1 File). In the case of Hallstatt samples, dendrochronological dating, based on wooden constructions which formed stratification and cultural context, was employed (Table B in S1 File).


Hunting for the LCT-13910*T allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages suggests its absence in dairying LBK people entering the Kuyavia region in the 8th millennium BP.

Witas HW, Płoszaj T, Jędrychowska-Dańska K, Witas PJ, Masłowska A, Jerszyńska B, Kozłowski T, Osipowicz G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Location of the explored Polish archaeological sites.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390234&req=5

pone.0122384.g001: Location of the explored Polish archaeological sites.
Mentions: Teeth from 231 individuals living in different periods between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages were collected. 131 individuals provided HVR-I mtDNA amplifiable sequences, including 80 medieval ones, 34 from the Roman period, 8 from the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age and 9 Neolithic ones. LCT-13910C>T sequence was identified in all except 6 medieval individuals and 3 from the Roman period. The yield of DNA isolation procedure at each archaeological site is presented in Table A in S1 File. The studied samples originated from four medieval sites (Stary Brześć Kujawski-4/14 specimens, Gruczno/15, Cedynia/35, Śródka/16), two representing the Roman period—Wielbark culture (Rogowo/21, Linowo/13), 8 from the Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age—Hallstatt culture (Gzin/6, Pędzewo/1, Grodno/1) and 9 from Neolithic sites (Grabkowo/4, Kowal/1, Osłonki/1—local Globular Amphora culture; Konary/1, Osłonki/2—Lengyel culture). Data from Cedynia and Śródka are used as a reference for medieval sites. Both these sites are of quite short history (Cedynia 1.2–1.1 Ka BP, Śródka 1.0–0.9 BP) and are located outside Kuyavia/the Chełmno land [21,22]. Cedynia lies at the western border of today’s Poland, approx. 400 km north-west, while Śródka 160 km west from the region. SBK-4, as well as one of the sites dated to the Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age, i.e. Grodno, together with all the studied Neolithic sites, are closely situated within an area approx. 20 km in diameter in the center of Kuyavia. Other sites, i.e. medieval Gruczno, two remaining sites of the Hallstatt culture, i.e. Gzin and Pędzewo, as well as both sites from the Roman period (Wielbark culture), are all located within a short distance from each other, mostly in the area belonging to the Chełmno land today. All studied archaeological sites are situated within the area of approx. 120 km in diameter (Fig. 1). Burials from the Middle Ages (1.0–0.6 Ka BP) and the Roman period (1.8–1.7 Ka BP) were dated according to the graves’ equipment, while the age of the Neolithic skeletons was estimated with radiocarbon dating (Table B in S1 File). In the case of Hallstatt samples, dendrochronological dating, based on wooden constructions which formed stratification and cultural context, was employed (Table B in S1 File).

Bottom Line: It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP.We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals.None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele's presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus