Limits...
Synchronous rhythmic interaction enhances children's perceived similarity and closeness towards each other.

Rabinowitch TC, Knafo-Noam A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This effect has been demonstrated in adults, but it is unknown whether synchrony might have a similar impact on the social attitudes of children.We found that children who had participated in a synchronous interaction regarded their interacting partner as more similar and closer to themselves than children who had not interacted at all or who had taken part in an asynchronous interaction.These findings reveal that synchronous interaction can positively alter social attitudes between interacting children, suggesting a potential mechanism by which synchrony may enhance positive social interaction through attitudinal shift.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel; Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Inter-personal synchronization is important for performing many cooperative tasks. Notably, synchrony has also been shown to have considerable positive social influences, possibly mediated by synchrony-induced changes in social attitude such as an increased sense of similarity and affiliation between interacting individuals. This effect has been demonstrated in adults, but it is unknown whether synchrony might have a similar impact on the social attitudes of children. We thus set to directly examine the influence of synchronous rhythmic interaction on perceived similarity and closeness in pairs of 8-9 year old children. We found that children who had participated in a synchronous interaction regarded their interacting partner as more similar and closer to themselves than children who had not interacted at all or who had taken part in an asynchronous interaction. These findings reveal that synchronous interaction can positively alter social attitudes between interacting children, suggesting a potential mechanism by which synchrony may enhance positive social interaction through attitudinal shift.

Show MeSH
Experimental setup.Two children were seated side by side in front of a computer screen and two tappers. A divider was placed on the screen so that each child could only see his or her half of the screen. The other child and his or her tapper were visible to each participant. The shaded area represents the field of view of one of the participants.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390221&req=5

pone.0120878.g001: Experimental setup.Two children were seated side by side in front of a computer screen and two tappers. A divider was placed on the screen so that each child could only see his or her half of the screen. The other child and his or her tapper were visible to each participant. The shaded area represents the field of view of one of the participants.

Mentions: The tapping task was designed to encourage participants to implicitly and unintentionally engage in one of two interaction types: synchrony or asynchrony. Each child dyad was randomly assigned to either one of these conditions (or to no tapping at all). The tapping was performed on an electrical tapper, a hand-played electronic percussion controller with 4 individual pads (Alesis PercPad). Children sat next to each other, each facing the electric tapper and a shared video screen divided in the middle, so that each child only saw their half of the screen, but could see the other child’s tapping (Fig. 1). In both types of interaction the children tapped together according to a bouncing ball appearing on each child’s half screen. The ball jumped up and down in an isochronous manner (constant interval between each bounce) and the children were asked to tap each time the ball reached the floor. To make this moment more distinguishable, the floor also turned red at the time of each expected tap. In addition, the ball moved according to a cosine function to give it a realistic appearance [26]. No auditory stimulus accompanied the bouncing ball, so that the only auditory feedback the children received both in the synchronized and asynchronized conditions was their own and their partner's tapping. In this way the children’s sensorimotor experience had the same auditory delays, and consisted of the same basic units of IOI. This was done so that participants’ aural attention should be directed as much as possible to the outcome of the rhythmic interaction. Children performed two blocks of 1.5 minutes long rhythmic interactions with a brief interval between them for resting the hands. In each of the blocks, the children tapped at either a fast frequency, of 600ms Inter-Onset Interval (IOI) between taps, or a slower rate of 800ms IOI between taps. These frequencies appeared to be comfortable to follow according to an earlier pilot whereby we presented children with different IOIs, asked them to tap along with auditory, as well as visual stimuli, and then monitored their success in tapping with the stimuli. We also asked participants how easy or difficult it was for them to follow the beat and tap. Most of the children felt comfortable around the 700ms IOI range. In the synchrony condition, both children tapped in phase at the same frequency within a block (i.e. Block 1: Child 1, 800 IOI; Child 2, 800 IOI; Phase 0 degrees. Block 2: Child 1, 600 IOI; Child 2, 600 IOI; Phase 0 degrees). In the asynchrony condition, each child tapped at a different frequency in each block, so the IOIs always had an 800/600 (1.33) ratio between them. In addition, tapping was performed at a 180 degrees phase difference (one of the participants’ tapping times were shifted by half of his or her IOI), further emphasizing the asynchrony (i.e. Block 1: Child 1, 800 IOI; Child 2, 600 IOI; Phase 180 degrees. Block 2: Child 1, 600 IOI; Child 2, 800 IOI; Phase 180 degrees). The children found the tapping task simple and easy to perform after a short practice, whereby each child individually tapped on the electrical tapper with the bouncing ball. For most children, the practice lasted about a minute or so. Children who needed more time to practice were given the chance to practice some more. When both children were ready, the actual rhythmic interaction began. The experimenter explained to the children that now both of them are going to tap at the same time for 1.5 minutes twice – “Now we will do the same as we just practiced, but you will play at the same time”. The rhythmic interaction was recorded on a Lenovo ThinkPad Edge 520 laptop, using Reaper Digitial Audio Workstation (Cockos Incorporated).


Synchronous rhythmic interaction enhances children's perceived similarity and closeness towards each other.

Rabinowitch TC, Knafo-Noam A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Experimental setup.Two children were seated side by side in front of a computer screen and two tappers. A divider was placed on the screen so that each child could only see his or her half of the screen. The other child and his or her tapper were visible to each participant. The shaded area represents the field of view of one of the participants.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390221&req=5

pone.0120878.g001: Experimental setup.Two children were seated side by side in front of a computer screen and two tappers. A divider was placed on the screen so that each child could only see his or her half of the screen. The other child and his or her tapper were visible to each participant. The shaded area represents the field of view of one of the participants.
Mentions: The tapping task was designed to encourage participants to implicitly and unintentionally engage in one of two interaction types: synchrony or asynchrony. Each child dyad was randomly assigned to either one of these conditions (or to no tapping at all). The tapping was performed on an electrical tapper, a hand-played electronic percussion controller with 4 individual pads (Alesis PercPad). Children sat next to each other, each facing the electric tapper and a shared video screen divided in the middle, so that each child only saw their half of the screen, but could see the other child’s tapping (Fig. 1). In both types of interaction the children tapped together according to a bouncing ball appearing on each child’s half screen. The ball jumped up and down in an isochronous manner (constant interval between each bounce) and the children were asked to tap each time the ball reached the floor. To make this moment more distinguishable, the floor also turned red at the time of each expected tap. In addition, the ball moved according to a cosine function to give it a realistic appearance [26]. No auditory stimulus accompanied the bouncing ball, so that the only auditory feedback the children received both in the synchronized and asynchronized conditions was their own and their partner's tapping. In this way the children’s sensorimotor experience had the same auditory delays, and consisted of the same basic units of IOI. This was done so that participants’ aural attention should be directed as much as possible to the outcome of the rhythmic interaction. Children performed two blocks of 1.5 minutes long rhythmic interactions with a brief interval between them for resting the hands. In each of the blocks, the children tapped at either a fast frequency, of 600ms Inter-Onset Interval (IOI) between taps, or a slower rate of 800ms IOI between taps. These frequencies appeared to be comfortable to follow according to an earlier pilot whereby we presented children with different IOIs, asked them to tap along with auditory, as well as visual stimuli, and then monitored their success in tapping with the stimuli. We also asked participants how easy or difficult it was for them to follow the beat and tap. Most of the children felt comfortable around the 700ms IOI range. In the synchrony condition, both children tapped in phase at the same frequency within a block (i.e. Block 1: Child 1, 800 IOI; Child 2, 800 IOI; Phase 0 degrees. Block 2: Child 1, 600 IOI; Child 2, 600 IOI; Phase 0 degrees). In the asynchrony condition, each child tapped at a different frequency in each block, so the IOIs always had an 800/600 (1.33) ratio between them. In addition, tapping was performed at a 180 degrees phase difference (one of the participants’ tapping times were shifted by half of his or her IOI), further emphasizing the asynchrony (i.e. Block 1: Child 1, 800 IOI; Child 2, 600 IOI; Phase 180 degrees. Block 2: Child 1, 600 IOI; Child 2, 800 IOI; Phase 180 degrees). The children found the tapping task simple and easy to perform after a short practice, whereby each child individually tapped on the electrical tapper with the bouncing ball. For most children, the practice lasted about a minute or so. Children who needed more time to practice were given the chance to practice some more. When both children were ready, the actual rhythmic interaction began. The experimenter explained to the children that now both of them are going to tap at the same time for 1.5 minutes twice – “Now we will do the same as we just practiced, but you will play at the same time”. The rhythmic interaction was recorded on a Lenovo ThinkPad Edge 520 laptop, using Reaper Digitial Audio Workstation (Cockos Incorporated).

Bottom Line: This effect has been demonstrated in adults, but it is unknown whether synchrony might have a similar impact on the social attitudes of children.We found that children who had participated in a synchronous interaction regarded their interacting partner as more similar and closer to themselves than children who had not interacted at all or who had taken part in an asynchronous interaction.These findings reveal that synchronous interaction can positively alter social attitudes between interacting children, suggesting a potential mechanism by which synchrony may enhance positive social interaction through attitudinal shift.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel; Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Inter-personal synchronization is important for performing many cooperative tasks. Notably, synchrony has also been shown to have considerable positive social influences, possibly mediated by synchrony-induced changes in social attitude such as an increased sense of similarity and affiliation between interacting individuals. This effect has been demonstrated in adults, but it is unknown whether synchrony might have a similar impact on the social attitudes of children. We thus set to directly examine the influence of synchronous rhythmic interaction on perceived similarity and closeness in pairs of 8-9 year old children. We found that children who had participated in a synchronous interaction regarded their interacting partner as more similar and closer to themselves than children who had not interacted at all or who had taken part in an asynchronous interaction. These findings reveal that synchronous interaction can positively alter social attitudes between interacting children, suggesting a potential mechanism by which synchrony may enhance positive social interaction through attitudinal shift.

Show MeSH