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Ornaments reveal resistance of North European cultures to the spread of farming.

Rigaud S, d'Errico F, Vanhaeren M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses.Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation.We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte Internationale 3199 (UMI3199), Centre for International Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (CIRHUS), New York University, New York, New York, United States of America; Service de Préhistoire de l'Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

No MeSH data available.


Cartography of the Early Neolithic bead-type configuration.A) Large-scale diffusion of exclusively Neolithic ornament types; B) Diversification of Early Neolithic ornament types; C) Persistence of Mesolithic bead-types in the Neolithic; D) Emergences of new bead types at regional scale. Dotted black lines indicate the major shifts in bead-type associations in South East Europe. Dotted orange ellipses show the two areas where numerous new bead-types were adopted during the end of the Early Neolithic. Color shaded areas indicate the geographic distribution of the MEN (pink), DEN (green) and BEN (blue) archaeological cultures considered in the analysis. Maps were made by S.R. by using ArcGIS 9.3.1 software. Some bead types were redrawn from [64–67].
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pone.0121166.g004: Cartography of the Early Neolithic bead-type configuration.A) Large-scale diffusion of exclusively Neolithic ornament types; B) Diversification of Early Neolithic ornament types; C) Persistence of Mesolithic bead-types in the Neolithic; D) Emergences of new bead types at regional scale. Dotted black lines indicate the major shifts in bead-type associations in South East Europe. Dotted orange ellipses show the two areas where numerous new bead-types were adopted during the end of the Early Neolithic. Color shaded areas indicate the geographic distribution of the MEN (pink), DEN (green) and BEN (blue) archaeological cultures considered in the analysis. Maps were made by S.R. by using ArcGIS 9.3.1 software. Some bead types were redrawn from [64–67].

Mentions: Results also show a limited but significant persistence of Mesolithic bead-types in Early Neolithic personal ornamentation (Fig 4C). This clearly indicates that cultural traits and presumably also individuals circulated from one society to another. Genetic [60,61] and isotopic data [62,63] are consistent with our results. They identify complex demic processes, comprising local forager alongside with Neolithic migrant contributions to the European gene pool and both incorporation of Neolithic migrants into forager communities and conversely, incorporation of foragers into Neolithic communities. Appropriation and incorporation of cultural traits may have facilitated the circulation of individuals from one community to another and led to the persistence of forager cultural attributes. This process might have represented a successful strategy for farmers seeking to spread in territories where strong foraging communities were implanted.


Ornaments reveal resistance of North European cultures to the spread of farming.

Rigaud S, d'Errico F, Vanhaeren M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cartography of the Early Neolithic bead-type configuration.A) Large-scale diffusion of exclusively Neolithic ornament types; B) Diversification of Early Neolithic ornament types; C) Persistence of Mesolithic bead-types in the Neolithic; D) Emergences of new bead types at regional scale. Dotted black lines indicate the major shifts in bead-type associations in South East Europe. Dotted orange ellipses show the two areas where numerous new bead-types were adopted during the end of the Early Neolithic. Color shaded areas indicate the geographic distribution of the MEN (pink), DEN (green) and BEN (blue) archaeological cultures considered in the analysis. Maps were made by S.R. by using ArcGIS 9.3.1 software. Some bead types were redrawn from [64–67].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390204&req=5

pone.0121166.g004: Cartography of the Early Neolithic bead-type configuration.A) Large-scale diffusion of exclusively Neolithic ornament types; B) Diversification of Early Neolithic ornament types; C) Persistence of Mesolithic bead-types in the Neolithic; D) Emergences of new bead types at regional scale. Dotted black lines indicate the major shifts in bead-type associations in South East Europe. Dotted orange ellipses show the two areas where numerous new bead-types were adopted during the end of the Early Neolithic. Color shaded areas indicate the geographic distribution of the MEN (pink), DEN (green) and BEN (blue) archaeological cultures considered in the analysis. Maps were made by S.R. by using ArcGIS 9.3.1 software. Some bead types were redrawn from [64–67].
Mentions: Results also show a limited but significant persistence of Mesolithic bead-types in Early Neolithic personal ornamentation (Fig 4C). This clearly indicates that cultural traits and presumably also individuals circulated from one society to another. Genetic [60,61] and isotopic data [62,63] are consistent with our results. They identify complex demic processes, comprising local forager alongside with Neolithic migrant contributions to the European gene pool and both incorporation of Neolithic migrants into forager communities and conversely, incorporation of foragers into Neolithic communities. Appropriation and incorporation of cultural traits may have facilitated the circulation of individuals from one community to another and led to the persistence of forager cultural attributes. This process might have represented a successful strategy for farmers seeking to spread in territories where strong foraging communities were implanted.

Bottom Line: We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses.Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation.We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte Internationale 3199 (UMI3199), Centre for International Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (CIRHUS), New York University, New York, New York, United States of America; Service de Préhistoire de l'Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

No MeSH data available.