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Ornaments reveal resistance of North European cultures to the spread of farming.

Rigaud S, d'Errico F, Vanhaeren M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses.Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation.We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte Internationale 3199 (UMI3199), Centre for International Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (CIRHUS), New York University, New York, New York, United States of America; Service de Préhistoire de l'Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

No MeSH data available.


Spline interpolation of the first axis of the Principal Coordinates Analysis.Geographic structure differentiation between Mesolithic and Early Neolithic indicates reshaping of the bead-type diversity in Europe during the transition to farming. Maps were made by S.R. by using ArcGIS 9.3.1 software.
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pone.0121166.g003: Spline interpolation of the first axis of the Principal Coordinates Analysis.Geographic structure differentiation between Mesolithic and Early Neolithic indicates reshaping of the bead-type diversity in Europe during the transition to farming. Maps were made by S.R. by using ArcGIS 9.3.1 software.

Mentions: The map of interpolated bead-type diversities throughout Europe, based on 48 archaeological cultures, shows a persistent sharp divide between bead-type associations from the Baltic area and those from Southern Europe during the Mesolithic and the beginning of the Neolithic (Fig 3). The highest interpolated values (in red) are distributed on the whole of Southern Europe during the Mesolithic. At the beginning of the Neolithic, the highest values are mainly restricted to Portugal, Northern Italy and Eastern Central Europe.


Ornaments reveal resistance of North European cultures to the spread of farming.

Rigaud S, d'Errico F, Vanhaeren M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Spline interpolation of the first axis of the Principal Coordinates Analysis.Geographic structure differentiation between Mesolithic and Early Neolithic indicates reshaping of the bead-type diversity in Europe during the transition to farming. Maps were made by S.R. by using ArcGIS 9.3.1 software.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390204&req=5

pone.0121166.g003: Spline interpolation of the first axis of the Principal Coordinates Analysis.Geographic structure differentiation between Mesolithic and Early Neolithic indicates reshaping of the bead-type diversity in Europe during the transition to farming. Maps were made by S.R. by using ArcGIS 9.3.1 software.
Mentions: The map of interpolated bead-type diversities throughout Europe, based on 48 archaeological cultures, shows a persistent sharp divide between bead-type associations from the Baltic area and those from Southern Europe during the Mesolithic and the beginning of the Neolithic (Fig 3). The highest interpolated values (in red) are distributed on the whole of Southern Europe during the Mesolithic. At the beginning of the Neolithic, the highest values are mainly restricted to Portugal, Northern Italy and Eastern Central Europe.

Bottom Line: We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses.Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation.We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte Internationale 3199 (UMI3199), Centre for International Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (CIRHUS), New York University, New York, New York, United States of America; Service de Préhistoire de l'Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

No MeSH data available.