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Ornaments reveal resistance of North European cultures to the spread of farming.

Rigaud S, d'Errico F, Vanhaeren M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses.Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation.We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte Internationale 3199 (UMI3199), Centre for International Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (CIRHUS), New York University, New York, New York, United States of America; Service de Préhistoire de l'Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

No MeSH data available.


Neighbor-Net tree of the 48 Mesolithic and Early Neolithic cultures (Text A in S1 Text), using the Di.Reticulations represent evidence of borrowing or exchange and are visible within and among each archaeological culture. Archaeological cultures are color-coded according to the chronological period and European region they belong to.
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pone.0121166.g002: Neighbor-Net tree of the 48 Mesolithic and Early Neolithic cultures (Text A in S1 Text), using the Di.Reticulations represent evidence of borrowing or exchange and are visible within and among each archaeological culture. Archaeological cultures are color-coded according to the chronological period and European region they belong to.

Mentions: The NeighborNet analysis (Fig 2) shows sharp separation of three main sets of archaeological cultures, comprising the Baltic archaeological cultures, DEN and MEN, except the Greek Early Neolithic (n°10) that does not cluster with any other MEN archaeological cultures. Although the sets are clearly discernible, the overlapping boxes point to conflicting splits in the data [44]. This is especially clear in the WEM clade, which exhibits a highly reticulated structure. The MEN set divides into two relatively well defined branches, one comprising Cardial (n°12) and Epicardial (n°13) archaeological cultures, the other Impressa (n°11). The DEN set follows a similar tendency with its most recent archaeological cultures [VSG (n°2), RRBP (n°5), RFBP (n°1)] appearing as closely related. This analysis indentifies the same chronological and geographical trends as those determined by the PCoA, as well as filiations between cultural facies. The fair amount of reticulations demonstrates the degree of relatedness between the different archaeological cultures of this period (Fig 1C). Estimates of the overall tree-likeness/boxiness of the network yielded an average delta score of 0.3 and Q-residual score of 0.02.


Ornaments reveal resistance of North European cultures to the spread of farming.

Rigaud S, d'Errico F, Vanhaeren M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Neighbor-Net tree of the 48 Mesolithic and Early Neolithic cultures (Text A in S1 Text), using the Di.Reticulations represent evidence of borrowing or exchange and are visible within and among each archaeological culture. Archaeological cultures are color-coded according to the chronological period and European region they belong to.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390204&req=5

pone.0121166.g002: Neighbor-Net tree of the 48 Mesolithic and Early Neolithic cultures (Text A in S1 Text), using the Di.Reticulations represent evidence of borrowing or exchange and are visible within and among each archaeological culture. Archaeological cultures are color-coded according to the chronological period and European region they belong to.
Mentions: The NeighborNet analysis (Fig 2) shows sharp separation of three main sets of archaeological cultures, comprising the Baltic archaeological cultures, DEN and MEN, except the Greek Early Neolithic (n°10) that does not cluster with any other MEN archaeological cultures. Although the sets are clearly discernible, the overlapping boxes point to conflicting splits in the data [44]. This is especially clear in the WEM clade, which exhibits a highly reticulated structure. The MEN set divides into two relatively well defined branches, one comprising Cardial (n°12) and Epicardial (n°13) archaeological cultures, the other Impressa (n°11). The DEN set follows a similar tendency with its most recent archaeological cultures [VSG (n°2), RRBP (n°5), RFBP (n°1)] appearing as closely related. This analysis indentifies the same chronological and geographical trends as those determined by the PCoA, as well as filiations between cultural facies. The fair amount of reticulations demonstrates the degree of relatedness between the different archaeological cultures of this period (Fig 1C). Estimates of the overall tree-likeness/boxiness of the network yielded an average delta score of 0.3 and Q-residual score of 0.02.

Bottom Line: We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses.Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation.We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte Internationale 3199 (UMI3199), Centre for International Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (CIRHUS), New York University, New York, New York, United States of America; Service de Préhistoire de l'Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

No MeSH data available.