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Ornaments reveal resistance of North European cultures to the spread of farming.

Rigaud S, d'Errico F, Vanhaeren M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses.Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation.We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte Internationale 3199 (UMI3199), Centre for International Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (CIRHUS), New York University, New York, New York, United States of America; Service de Préhistoire de l'Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

No MeSH data available.


Principal Coordinates Analysis (A) and Neighbor-Joining Tree (B) of the 48 archaeological cultures using the Dice similarity index for binary data (Di).Both analyses show differentiation of the bead-type associations among the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic archaeological cultures. Archaeological cultures are color-coded according to the chronological period and European region they belong to. Numbering of archaeological cultures is detailed in Text A in S1 Text.
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pone.0121166.g001: Principal Coordinates Analysis (A) and Neighbor-Joining Tree (B) of the 48 archaeological cultures using the Dice similarity index for binary data (Di).Both analyses show differentiation of the bead-type associations among the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic archaeological cultures. Archaeological cultures are color-coded according to the chronological period and European region they belong to. Numbering of archaeological cultures is detailed in Text A in S1 Text.

Mentions: Fig 1A shows PCoA for the 48 archaeological cultures documented in our sample. Analysis identifies five distinct broad archaeological sets indicated with different colors, corresponding to the chronological and geographical structure of the dataset. The first PCoA axis (accounting for 20% of total variation) positions archaeological cultures from the Baltic area apart from Southern areas of Europe. The second PCoA axis (9.18%) separates South-western European Mesolithic archaeological cultures (WEM) from those attributed to the Mediterranean (MEN) and Danubian (DEN) Early Neolithic. Each of the three first axes identifies a clear overlap between Baltic Mesolithic (BM) and Baltic Early Neolithic (BEN) convex hulls, indicating a high level of bead-type sharing between the two sets. Overlap between WEM and MEN and DEN convex hulls is only visible in the PCoA3 (6.91%) reflecting minor bead-type sharing. The large convex hull of the WEM set reflects a high degree of internal heterogeneity in bead-type diversity. Smaller convex hulls for the MEN and DEN archaeological sets conversely indicate lower internal heterogeneity of bead-type diversity.


Ornaments reveal resistance of North European cultures to the spread of farming.

Rigaud S, d'Errico F, Vanhaeren M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Principal Coordinates Analysis (A) and Neighbor-Joining Tree (B) of the 48 archaeological cultures using the Dice similarity index for binary data (Di).Both analyses show differentiation of the bead-type associations among the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic archaeological cultures. Archaeological cultures are color-coded according to the chronological period and European region they belong to. Numbering of archaeological cultures is detailed in Text A in S1 Text.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390204&req=5

pone.0121166.g001: Principal Coordinates Analysis (A) and Neighbor-Joining Tree (B) of the 48 archaeological cultures using the Dice similarity index for binary data (Di).Both analyses show differentiation of the bead-type associations among the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic archaeological cultures. Archaeological cultures are color-coded according to the chronological period and European region they belong to. Numbering of archaeological cultures is detailed in Text A in S1 Text.
Mentions: Fig 1A shows PCoA for the 48 archaeological cultures documented in our sample. Analysis identifies five distinct broad archaeological sets indicated with different colors, corresponding to the chronological and geographical structure of the dataset. The first PCoA axis (accounting for 20% of total variation) positions archaeological cultures from the Baltic area apart from Southern areas of Europe. The second PCoA axis (9.18%) separates South-western European Mesolithic archaeological cultures (WEM) from those attributed to the Mediterranean (MEN) and Danubian (DEN) Early Neolithic. Each of the three first axes identifies a clear overlap between Baltic Mesolithic (BM) and Baltic Early Neolithic (BEN) convex hulls, indicating a high level of bead-type sharing between the two sets. Overlap between WEM and MEN and DEN convex hulls is only visible in the PCoA3 (6.91%) reflecting minor bead-type sharing. The large convex hull of the WEM set reflects a high degree of internal heterogeneity in bead-type diversity. Smaller convex hulls for the MEN and DEN archaeological sets conversely indicate lower internal heterogeneity of bead-type diversity.

Bottom Line: We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses.Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation.We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte Internationale 3199 (UMI3199), Centre for International Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (CIRHUS), New York University, New York, New York, United States of America; Service de Préhistoire de l'Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
The transition to farming is the process by which human groups switched from hunting and gathering wild resources to food production. Understanding how and to what extent the spreading of farming communities from the Near East had an impact on indigenous foraging populations in Europe has been the subject of lively debates for decades. Ethnographic and archaeological studies have shown that population replacement and admixture, trade, and long distance diffusion of cultural traits lead to detectable changes in symbolic codes expressed by associations of ornaments on the human body. Here we use personal ornaments to document changes in cultural geography during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. We submitted a binary matrix of 224 bead-types found at 212 European Mesolithic and 222 Early Neolithic stratigraphic units to a series of spatial and multivariate analyses. Our results reveal consistent diachronic and geographical trends in the use of personal ornaments during the Neolithisation. Adoption of novel bead-types combined with selective appropriation of old attires by incoming farmers is identified in Southern and Central Europe while cultural resistance leading to the nearly exclusive persistence of indigenous personal ornaments characterizes Northern Europe. We argue that this pattern reflects two distinct cultural trajectories with different potential for gene flow.

No MeSH data available.