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Increased isolation frequency of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from environmental monitoring sites in Haiti.

Alam MT, Weppelmann TA, Longini I, De Rochars VM, Morris JG, Ali A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: In a previous study conducted between April 2012 and March 2013, we reported the isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department.Both seasonal water temperatures and precipitation were significantly related to the frequency of isolation.Our data suggest that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 are becoming more common in surface waters in Haiti; while the basis for this increase is uncertain, our findings raise concerns that environmental reservoirs are being established.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America; Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Since the identification of the first cholera case in 2010, the disease has spread in epidemic form throughout the island nation of Haiti; as of 2014, about 700,000 cholera cases have been reported, with over 8,000 deaths. While case numbers have declined, the more fundamental question of whether the causative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae has established an environmental reservoir in the surface waters of Haiti remains to be elucidated. In a previous study conducted between April 2012 and March 2013, we reported the isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department. After a second year of surveillance (April 2013 to March 2014) using identical methodology, we observed a more than five-fold increase in the number of water samples containing culturable V. cholerae O1 compared to the previous year (1.7% vs 8.6%), with double the number of sites having at least one positive sample (58% vs 20%). Both seasonal water temperatures and precipitation were significantly related to the frequency of isolation. Our data suggest that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 are becoming more common in surface waters in Haiti; while the basis for this increase is uncertain, our findings raise concerns that environmental reservoirs are being established.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Map displaying location of environmental sampling sites from the Leogane flood basin (gray shaded region, inset) in the Ouest Department of Haiti and the source of rainfall measurements bounded by the region 18.2–18.5°N, 17.1–17.4°W (red square inset).The environmental samples were collected between the months of April, 2013 and March, 2014. The number of V. cholerae O1 isolates obtained from each sampling site is differentiated by color.
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pone.0124098.g001: Map displaying location of environmental sampling sites from the Leogane flood basin (gray shaded region, inset) in the Ouest Department of Haiti and the source of rainfall measurements bounded by the region 18.2–18.5°N, 17.1–17.4°W (red square inset).The environmental samples were collected between the months of April, 2013 and March, 2014. The number of V. cholerae O1 isolates obtained from each sampling site is differentiated by color.

Mentions: In contrast to the previous year, where V. cholerae O1 was exclusively isolated in estuarine sites at the mouths of the Taipon and Momance Rivers (Lassale, Jeffra, and Gressier Beach); in the current study V. cholerae O1 was only isolated from upstream collection sites, which included a transect of the Momance River approaching Mount Chandelle (Jean-Jean). The geographic locations of the fixed collection sites where toxigenic V. cholerae O1 were isolated are presented with respect to isolation frequency in Fig 1. The likelihood of isolating V. cholerae from the environment was not increased with higher concentration of fecal coliform bacteria in the water samples (P > 0.5).


Increased isolation frequency of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from environmental monitoring sites in Haiti.

Alam MT, Weppelmann TA, Longini I, De Rochars VM, Morris JG, Ali A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Map displaying location of environmental sampling sites from the Leogane flood basin (gray shaded region, inset) in the Ouest Department of Haiti and the source of rainfall measurements bounded by the region 18.2–18.5°N, 17.1–17.4°W (red square inset).The environmental samples were collected between the months of April, 2013 and March, 2014. The number of V. cholerae O1 isolates obtained from each sampling site is differentiated by color.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390201&req=5

pone.0124098.g001: Map displaying location of environmental sampling sites from the Leogane flood basin (gray shaded region, inset) in the Ouest Department of Haiti and the source of rainfall measurements bounded by the region 18.2–18.5°N, 17.1–17.4°W (red square inset).The environmental samples were collected between the months of April, 2013 and March, 2014. The number of V. cholerae O1 isolates obtained from each sampling site is differentiated by color.
Mentions: In contrast to the previous year, where V. cholerae O1 was exclusively isolated in estuarine sites at the mouths of the Taipon and Momance Rivers (Lassale, Jeffra, and Gressier Beach); in the current study V. cholerae O1 was only isolated from upstream collection sites, which included a transect of the Momance River approaching Mount Chandelle (Jean-Jean). The geographic locations of the fixed collection sites where toxigenic V. cholerae O1 were isolated are presented with respect to isolation frequency in Fig 1. The likelihood of isolating V. cholerae from the environment was not increased with higher concentration of fecal coliform bacteria in the water samples (P > 0.5).

Bottom Line: In a previous study conducted between April 2012 and March 2013, we reported the isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department.Both seasonal water temperatures and precipitation were significantly related to the frequency of isolation.Our data suggest that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 are becoming more common in surface waters in Haiti; while the basis for this increase is uncertain, our findings raise concerns that environmental reservoirs are being established.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America; Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Since the identification of the first cholera case in 2010, the disease has spread in epidemic form throughout the island nation of Haiti; as of 2014, about 700,000 cholera cases have been reported, with over 8,000 deaths. While case numbers have declined, the more fundamental question of whether the causative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae has established an environmental reservoir in the surface waters of Haiti remains to be elucidated. In a previous study conducted between April 2012 and March 2013, we reported the isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department. After a second year of surveillance (April 2013 to March 2014) using identical methodology, we observed a more than five-fold increase in the number of water samples containing culturable V. cholerae O1 compared to the previous year (1.7% vs 8.6%), with double the number of sites having at least one positive sample (58% vs 20%). Both seasonal water temperatures and precipitation were significantly related to the frequency of isolation. Our data suggest that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 are becoming more common in surface waters in Haiti; while the basis for this increase is uncertain, our findings raise concerns that environmental reservoirs are being established.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus