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Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

Jarvis JN, Meintjes G, Bicanic T, Buffa V, Hogan L, Mo S, Tomlinson G, Kropf P, Noursadeghi M, Harrison TS - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

Bottom Line: In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM.We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART.These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Botswana-UPenn Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART. These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relationship between CSF MCP-1 concentrations and CD4 cell counts, cerebrospinal fluid lymphocyte counts, and immune reconstitution syndrome.Associations between baseline MCP-1 concentrations and baseline CD4 cell count, concentrations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte count and immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS). The IRIS association was adjusted for treatment group. Best-fit regression lines are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Box plots show the median and extend to the inter-quartile range, with whiskers denoting minimum and maximum values. These associations all remained significant when controlling for a family wise error rate of 0.05.There was no significant difference in CSF MCP-1 concentrations between those who survived (749.1 pg/ml) and those who died (858.4 pg/ml), p = 0.76.
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ppat.1004754.g005: Relationship between CSF MCP-1 concentrations and CD4 cell counts, cerebrospinal fluid lymphocyte counts, and immune reconstitution syndrome.Associations between baseline MCP-1 concentrations and baseline CD4 cell count, concentrations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte count and immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS). The IRIS association was adjusted for treatment group. Best-fit regression lines are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Box plots show the median and extend to the inter-quartile range, with whiskers denoting minimum and maximum values. These associations all remained significant when controlling for a family wise error rate of 0.05.There was no significant difference in CSF MCP-1 concentrations between those who survived (749.1 pg/ml) and those who died (858.4 pg/ml), p = 0.76.

Mentions: The largest contributor to PC2 was MCP-1, which was individually strongly negatively correlated with CD4 count (r = -0.31, p = 0.004) and log10 CSF lymphocyte count (r = -0.46, p<0.001), and associated with IRIS (baseline geometric mean CSF MCP-1 concentration 574.7 pg/ml in those not developing IRIS versus 2887.0 pg/ml in those who subsequently developed IRIS, p = 0.005, Fig 5). These associations all remained significant when controlling for a FWER of 0.05.


Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

Jarvis JN, Meintjes G, Bicanic T, Buffa V, Hogan L, Mo S, Tomlinson G, Kropf P, Noursadeghi M, Harrison TS - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

Relationship between CSF MCP-1 concentrations and CD4 cell counts, cerebrospinal fluid lymphocyte counts, and immune reconstitution syndrome.Associations between baseline MCP-1 concentrations and baseline CD4 cell count, concentrations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte count and immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS). The IRIS association was adjusted for treatment group. Best-fit regression lines are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Box plots show the median and extend to the inter-quartile range, with whiskers denoting minimum and maximum values. These associations all remained significant when controlling for a family wise error rate of 0.05.There was no significant difference in CSF MCP-1 concentrations between those who survived (749.1 pg/ml) and those who died (858.4 pg/ml), p = 0.76.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390200&req=5

ppat.1004754.g005: Relationship between CSF MCP-1 concentrations and CD4 cell counts, cerebrospinal fluid lymphocyte counts, and immune reconstitution syndrome.Associations between baseline MCP-1 concentrations and baseline CD4 cell count, concentrations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte count and immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS). The IRIS association was adjusted for treatment group. Best-fit regression lines are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Box plots show the median and extend to the inter-quartile range, with whiskers denoting minimum and maximum values. These associations all remained significant when controlling for a family wise error rate of 0.05.There was no significant difference in CSF MCP-1 concentrations between those who survived (749.1 pg/ml) and those who died (858.4 pg/ml), p = 0.76.
Mentions: The largest contributor to PC2 was MCP-1, which was individually strongly negatively correlated with CD4 count (r = -0.31, p = 0.004) and log10 CSF lymphocyte count (r = -0.46, p<0.001), and associated with IRIS (baseline geometric mean CSF MCP-1 concentration 574.7 pg/ml in those not developing IRIS versus 2887.0 pg/ml in those who subsequently developed IRIS, p = 0.005, Fig 5). These associations all remained significant when controlling for a FWER of 0.05.

Bottom Line: In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM.We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART.These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Botswana-UPenn Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART. These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus