Limits...
Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

Jarvis JN, Meintjes G, Bicanic T, Buffa V, Hogan L, Mo S, Tomlinson G, Kropf P, Noursadeghi M, Harrison TS - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

Bottom Line: In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM.We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART.These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Botswana-UPenn Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART. These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relationships between cerebrospinal fluid interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations, and their associations with disease severity and outcome.Associations between baseline IL-4 (top row), IL-10 (middle row) and IL-17 concentrations (bottom row), and baseline IFNγ concentrations, baseline fungal burden (quantitative cryptococcal culture, QCC), rate of clearance of infection (early fungicidal activity, EFA) and 2 week mortality. Best-fit regression lines are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Box plots show the median and extend to the inter-quartile range, with whiskers denoting minimum and maximum values. P-values derived from Student’s t-tests are shown for the mortality associations (both unadjusted and adjusted for family wise error rate using permutation testing). All EFA and mortality associations were adjusted for treatment group. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and significance levels were: IL-4/IFNγ r = 0.57 p<0.001, IL-4/QCC r = -0.23 p = 0.03, IL-4/EFA r = -0.21 p = 0.1. IL-10/IFNγ r = 0.64 p<0.001, IL-10/QCC r = -0.30 p = 0.005, IL-10/EFA r = -0.15 p = 0.2. IL-17/IFNγ r = 0.47 p<0.001, IL-17/QCC r = -0.25 p = 0.02, IL-17/EFA r = -0.29 p = 0.03. These associations all remained significant when controlling for a family wise error rate of 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390200&req=5

ppat.1004754.g003: Relationships between cerebrospinal fluid interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations, and their associations with disease severity and outcome.Associations between baseline IL-4 (top row), IL-10 (middle row) and IL-17 concentrations (bottom row), and baseline IFNγ concentrations, baseline fungal burden (quantitative cryptococcal culture, QCC), rate of clearance of infection (early fungicidal activity, EFA) and 2 week mortality. Best-fit regression lines are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Box plots show the median and extend to the inter-quartile range, with whiskers denoting minimum and maximum values. P-values derived from Student’s t-tests are shown for the mortality associations (both unadjusted and adjusted for family wise error rate using permutation testing). All EFA and mortality associations were adjusted for treatment group. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and significance levels were: IL-4/IFNγ r = 0.57 p<0.001, IL-4/QCC r = -0.23 p = 0.03, IL-4/EFA r = -0.21 p = 0.1. IL-10/IFNγ r = 0.64 p<0.001, IL-10/QCC r = -0.30 p = 0.005, IL-10/EFA r = -0.15 p = 0.2. IL-17/IFNγ r = 0.47 p<0.001, IL-17/QCC r = -0.25 p = 0.02, IL-17/EFA r = -0.29 p = 0.03. These associations all remained significant when controlling for a family wise error rate of 0.05.

Mentions: Baseline CSF cytokine concentrations are shown in Fig 1. IL-12, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-23 concentrations were below the limit of detection in the majority of cases, and have been excluded from subsequent analyses. Principal component analysis was used to identify co-correlated cytokine and chemokine measurements that accounted for the variance across the data set. The majority of the variance was reflected by PC1 (44%) and PC2 (17%) (Fig 2A). The component loadings for each variable showed that the variance in PC1 was driven by positive loading scores for the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFNγ and the chemokine IL-8 (Fig 2B). IL4, IL10 and IL17 levels also made positive, albeit more modest contribution to the PC1 score, suggesting that Th1 (IFNγ), Th2 (IL4 and IL10) and Th17 (IL17) responses were co-correlated in this context and confirmed by direct pairwise comparisons of each cytokine (Fig 3). The variance in PC2 was due to negative loading scores for the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α, and the cytokine GM-CSF (Fig 2B). Hence PC1scores were positively correlated with the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFNγ and PC2 scores were inversely correlated with the levels of the chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-1α (Fig 2C and S2 Fig).


Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

Jarvis JN, Meintjes G, Bicanic T, Buffa V, Hogan L, Mo S, Tomlinson G, Kropf P, Noursadeghi M, Harrison TS - PLoS Pathog. (2015)

Relationships between cerebrospinal fluid interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations, and their associations with disease severity and outcome.Associations between baseline IL-4 (top row), IL-10 (middle row) and IL-17 concentrations (bottom row), and baseline IFNγ concentrations, baseline fungal burden (quantitative cryptococcal culture, QCC), rate of clearance of infection (early fungicidal activity, EFA) and 2 week mortality. Best-fit regression lines are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Box plots show the median and extend to the inter-quartile range, with whiskers denoting minimum and maximum values. P-values derived from Student’s t-tests are shown for the mortality associations (both unadjusted and adjusted for family wise error rate using permutation testing). All EFA and mortality associations were adjusted for treatment group. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and significance levels were: IL-4/IFNγ r = 0.57 p<0.001, IL-4/QCC r = -0.23 p = 0.03, IL-4/EFA r = -0.21 p = 0.1. IL-10/IFNγ r = 0.64 p<0.001, IL-10/QCC r = -0.30 p = 0.005, IL-10/EFA r = -0.15 p = 0.2. IL-17/IFNγ r = 0.47 p<0.001, IL-17/QCC r = -0.25 p = 0.02, IL-17/EFA r = -0.29 p = 0.03. These associations all remained significant when controlling for a family wise error rate of 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390200&req=5

ppat.1004754.g003: Relationships between cerebrospinal fluid interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations, and their associations with disease severity and outcome.Associations between baseline IL-4 (top row), IL-10 (middle row) and IL-17 concentrations (bottom row), and baseline IFNγ concentrations, baseline fungal burden (quantitative cryptococcal culture, QCC), rate of clearance of infection (early fungicidal activity, EFA) and 2 week mortality. Best-fit regression lines are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Box plots show the median and extend to the inter-quartile range, with whiskers denoting minimum and maximum values. P-values derived from Student’s t-tests are shown for the mortality associations (both unadjusted and adjusted for family wise error rate using permutation testing). All EFA and mortality associations were adjusted for treatment group. Pearson’s correlation coefficients and significance levels were: IL-4/IFNγ r = 0.57 p<0.001, IL-4/QCC r = -0.23 p = 0.03, IL-4/EFA r = -0.21 p = 0.1. IL-10/IFNγ r = 0.64 p<0.001, IL-10/QCC r = -0.30 p = 0.005, IL-10/EFA r = -0.15 p = 0.2. IL-17/IFNγ r = 0.47 p<0.001, IL-17/QCC r = -0.25 p = 0.02, IL-17/EFA r = -0.29 p = 0.03. These associations all remained significant when controlling for a family wise error rate of 0.05.
Mentions: Baseline CSF cytokine concentrations are shown in Fig 1. IL-12, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-23 concentrations were below the limit of detection in the majority of cases, and have been excluded from subsequent analyses. Principal component analysis was used to identify co-correlated cytokine and chemokine measurements that accounted for the variance across the data set. The majority of the variance was reflected by PC1 (44%) and PC2 (17%) (Fig 2A). The component loadings for each variable showed that the variance in PC1 was driven by positive loading scores for the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFNγ and the chemokine IL-8 (Fig 2B). IL4, IL10 and IL17 levels also made positive, albeit more modest contribution to the PC1 score, suggesting that Th1 (IFNγ), Th2 (IL4 and IL10) and Th17 (IL17) responses were co-correlated in this context and confirmed by direct pairwise comparisons of each cytokine (Fig 3). The variance in PC2 was due to negative loading scores for the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α, and the cytokine GM-CSF (Fig 2B). Hence PC1scores were positively correlated with the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFNγ and PC2 scores were inversely correlated with the levels of the chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-1α (Fig 2C and S2 Fig).

Bottom Line: In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM.We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART.These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Botswana-UPenn Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART. These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus