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Exposure to common food additive carrageenan alone leads to fasting hyperglycemia and in combination with high fat diet exacerbates glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia without effect on weight.

Bhattacharyya S, Feferman L, Unterman T, Tobacman JK - J Diabetes Res (2015)

Bottom Line: In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain.Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption.Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612-4325, USA ; Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612-3728, USA.

ABSTRACT

Aims: Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared.

Results: Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state.

Conclusions: Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Lipid parameters increased by carrageenan with HFD. (a) Total cholesterol was significantly higher in HFD and HFD + carrageenan mice, compared to control or carrageenan-exposed group (P < 0.001, n = 27) at 50 weeks, and total cholesterol was more in HFD + carrageenan than HFD alone (P < 0.01). (b) HDL cholesterol did not change significantly following carrageenan but was higher in HFD and HFD + carrageenan (P < 0.001, n = 27). (c) Non-HDL cholesterol did not change following carrageenan but increased following HFD and HFD + carrageenan (P < 0.001; n = 27) and was significantly higher in the HFD + carrageenan group than HFD alone (P < 0.01). (d) Triglycerides increased by HFD and HFD + carrageenan, but not by carrageenan alone (n = 27). In HFD + carrageenan, triglycerides were higher than in HFD alone (P < 0.01; one-way ANOVA, with Tukey-Kramer posttest, total n = 27). CGN = carrageenan; HDL = high density lipoprotein; HFD = high fat diet.
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fig5: Lipid parameters increased by carrageenan with HFD. (a) Total cholesterol was significantly higher in HFD and HFD + carrageenan mice, compared to control or carrageenan-exposed group (P < 0.001, n = 27) at 50 weeks, and total cholesterol was more in HFD + carrageenan than HFD alone (P < 0.01). (b) HDL cholesterol did not change significantly following carrageenan but was higher in HFD and HFD + carrageenan (P < 0.001, n = 27). (c) Non-HDL cholesterol did not change following carrageenan but increased following HFD and HFD + carrageenan (P < 0.001; n = 27) and was significantly higher in the HFD + carrageenan group than HFD alone (P < 0.01). (d) Triglycerides increased by HFD and HFD + carrageenan, but not by carrageenan alone (n = 27). In HFD + carrageenan, triglycerides were higher than in HFD alone (P < 0.01; one-way ANOVA, with Tukey-Kramer posttest, total n = 27). CGN = carrageenan; HDL = high density lipoprotein; HFD = high fat diet.

Mentions: Cholesterol and triglyceride measurements were made after an overnight fast in mice from the four groups after 44 weeks of exposure to carrageenan, HFD, or HFD + carrageenan. The mice on HFD and HFD + carrageenan had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (Figure 5(a)), HDL (Figure 5(b)), non-HDL cholesterol (Figure 5(c)) and triglycerides (Figure 5(d)) than either the carrageenan-exposed mice or the untreated control (P < 0.001; n = 28). HFD in combination with carrageenan increased the levels of non-HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol, compared to HFD alone (P < 0.01).


Exposure to common food additive carrageenan alone leads to fasting hyperglycemia and in combination with high fat diet exacerbates glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia without effect on weight.

Bhattacharyya S, Feferman L, Unterman T, Tobacman JK - J Diabetes Res (2015)

Lipid parameters increased by carrageenan with HFD. (a) Total cholesterol was significantly higher in HFD and HFD + carrageenan mice, compared to control or carrageenan-exposed group (P < 0.001, n = 27) at 50 weeks, and total cholesterol was more in HFD + carrageenan than HFD alone (P < 0.01). (b) HDL cholesterol did not change significantly following carrageenan but was higher in HFD and HFD + carrageenan (P < 0.001, n = 27). (c) Non-HDL cholesterol did not change following carrageenan but increased following HFD and HFD + carrageenan (P < 0.001; n = 27) and was significantly higher in the HFD + carrageenan group than HFD alone (P < 0.01). (d) Triglycerides increased by HFD and HFD + carrageenan, but not by carrageenan alone (n = 27). In HFD + carrageenan, triglycerides were higher than in HFD alone (P < 0.01; one-way ANOVA, with Tukey-Kramer posttest, total n = 27). CGN = carrageenan; HDL = high density lipoprotein; HFD = high fat diet.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390184&req=5

fig5: Lipid parameters increased by carrageenan with HFD. (a) Total cholesterol was significantly higher in HFD and HFD + carrageenan mice, compared to control or carrageenan-exposed group (P < 0.001, n = 27) at 50 weeks, and total cholesterol was more in HFD + carrageenan than HFD alone (P < 0.01). (b) HDL cholesterol did not change significantly following carrageenan but was higher in HFD and HFD + carrageenan (P < 0.001, n = 27). (c) Non-HDL cholesterol did not change following carrageenan but increased following HFD and HFD + carrageenan (P < 0.001; n = 27) and was significantly higher in the HFD + carrageenan group than HFD alone (P < 0.01). (d) Triglycerides increased by HFD and HFD + carrageenan, but not by carrageenan alone (n = 27). In HFD + carrageenan, triglycerides were higher than in HFD alone (P < 0.01; one-way ANOVA, with Tukey-Kramer posttest, total n = 27). CGN = carrageenan; HDL = high density lipoprotein; HFD = high fat diet.
Mentions: Cholesterol and triglyceride measurements were made after an overnight fast in mice from the four groups after 44 weeks of exposure to carrageenan, HFD, or HFD + carrageenan. The mice on HFD and HFD + carrageenan had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (Figure 5(a)), HDL (Figure 5(b)), non-HDL cholesterol (Figure 5(c)) and triglycerides (Figure 5(d)) than either the carrageenan-exposed mice or the untreated control (P < 0.001; n = 28). HFD in combination with carrageenan increased the levels of non-HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol, compared to HFD alone (P < 0.01).

Bottom Line: In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain.Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption.Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612-4325, USA ; Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612-3728, USA.

ABSTRACT

Aims: Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared.

Results: Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state.

Conclusions: Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus