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Exposure to common food additive carrageenan alone leads to fasting hyperglycemia and in combination with high fat diet exacerbates glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia without effect on weight.

Bhattacharyya S, Feferman L, Unterman T, Tobacman JK - J Diabetes Res (2015)

Bottom Line: In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain.Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption.Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612-4325, USA ; Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612-3728, USA.

ABSTRACT

Aims: Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared.

Results: Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state.

Conclusions: Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects on weight, fasting hyperglycemia, and GTT. (a) Weights were significantly higher in mice on HFD and HFD + carrageenan, compared to control or carrageenan-exposed groups, beginning at 6 weeks and sustained throughout. (b) Fasting blood sugars were significantly higher than control by 6 weeks in HFD + carrageenan, followed by HFD at 11 weeks, and in the carrageenan-exposed group at 23 weeks (n = 28). (c) GTT at 48 weeks showed that carrageenan alone produced higher blood glucose levels at 30, 60, and 90 minutes than control. HFD + carrageenan had higher values than control at all time points, whereas HFD value was higher only at baseline (one-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer posttest, n = 12). (d) Area under the curve confirms significant differences for carrageenan, HFD, and HFD + carrageenan, compared to control. CGN = carrageenan; HFD = high fat diet; GTT = glucose tolerance test.
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fig3: Effects on weight, fasting hyperglycemia, and GTT. (a) Weights were significantly higher in mice on HFD and HFD + carrageenan, compared to control or carrageenan-exposed groups, beginning at 6 weeks and sustained throughout. (b) Fasting blood sugars were significantly higher than control by 6 weeks in HFD + carrageenan, followed by HFD at 11 weeks, and in the carrageenan-exposed group at 23 weeks (n = 28). (c) GTT at 48 weeks showed that carrageenan alone produced higher blood glucose levels at 30, 60, and 90 minutes than control. HFD + carrageenan had higher values than control at all time points, whereas HFD value was higher only at baseline (one-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer posttest, n = 12). (d) Area under the curve confirms significant differences for carrageenan, HFD, and HFD + carrageenan, compared to control. CGN = carrageenan; HFD = high fat diet; GTT = glucose tolerance test.

Mentions: With either HFD or HFD + carrageenan, the mouse weights increased steadily, compared to the control and carrageenan-exposed mice, and were significantly greater from 6 weeks of the HFD ongoing throughout the study (Figure 3(a); designated by arrow). The mice exposed to the combination of HFD + carrageenan had similar weights to the mice in the HFD alone group.


Exposure to common food additive carrageenan alone leads to fasting hyperglycemia and in combination with high fat diet exacerbates glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia without effect on weight.

Bhattacharyya S, Feferman L, Unterman T, Tobacman JK - J Diabetes Res (2015)

Effects on weight, fasting hyperglycemia, and GTT. (a) Weights were significantly higher in mice on HFD and HFD + carrageenan, compared to control or carrageenan-exposed groups, beginning at 6 weeks and sustained throughout. (b) Fasting blood sugars were significantly higher than control by 6 weeks in HFD + carrageenan, followed by HFD at 11 weeks, and in the carrageenan-exposed group at 23 weeks (n = 28). (c) GTT at 48 weeks showed that carrageenan alone produced higher blood glucose levels at 30, 60, and 90 minutes than control. HFD + carrageenan had higher values than control at all time points, whereas HFD value was higher only at baseline (one-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer posttest, n = 12). (d) Area under the curve confirms significant differences for carrageenan, HFD, and HFD + carrageenan, compared to control. CGN = carrageenan; HFD = high fat diet; GTT = glucose tolerance test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390184&req=5

fig3: Effects on weight, fasting hyperglycemia, and GTT. (a) Weights were significantly higher in mice on HFD and HFD + carrageenan, compared to control or carrageenan-exposed groups, beginning at 6 weeks and sustained throughout. (b) Fasting blood sugars were significantly higher than control by 6 weeks in HFD + carrageenan, followed by HFD at 11 weeks, and in the carrageenan-exposed group at 23 weeks (n = 28). (c) GTT at 48 weeks showed that carrageenan alone produced higher blood glucose levels at 30, 60, and 90 minutes than control. HFD + carrageenan had higher values than control at all time points, whereas HFD value was higher only at baseline (one-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer posttest, n = 12). (d) Area under the curve confirms significant differences for carrageenan, HFD, and HFD + carrageenan, compared to control. CGN = carrageenan; HFD = high fat diet; GTT = glucose tolerance test.
Mentions: With either HFD or HFD + carrageenan, the mouse weights increased steadily, compared to the control and carrageenan-exposed mice, and were significantly greater from 6 weeks of the HFD ongoing throughout the study (Figure 3(a); designated by arrow). The mice exposed to the combination of HFD + carrageenan had similar weights to the mice in the HFD alone group.

Bottom Line: In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain.Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption.Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612-4325, USA ; Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612-3728, USA.

ABSTRACT

Aims: Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared.

Results: Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state.

Conclusions: Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus