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Exposure to common food additive carrageenan alone leads to fasting hyperglycemia and in combination with high fat diet exacerbates glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia without effect on weight.

Bhattacharyya S, Feferman L, Unterman T, Tobacman JK - J Diabetes Res (2015)

Bottom Line: In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain.Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption.Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612-4325, USA ; Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612-3728, USA.

ABSTRACT

Aims: Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared.

Results: Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state.

Conclusions: Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) on days 3, 6, and 9. (a) GTT showed no differences in blood glucose levels between control and carrageenan-exposed groups at 3 days (n = 8, 4 per group). (b) At 6 days, the carrageenan-exposed group demonstrated significant elevations of glucose (unpaired t-test, two-tailed; n = 8). (c) At 9 days, GTT was markedly abnormal (unpaired t-test, two-tailed; n = 8). (d) Area under the curve measurements confirm differences between control and carrageenan-exposed mice on days 6 and 9. (e) Weights were similar between the carrageenan-exposed and the control mice on days 3 and 6 and slightly less in the carrageenan-exposed mice on day 9.
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fig1: Glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) on days 3, 6, and 9. (a) GTT showed no differences in blood glucose levels between control and carrageenan-exposed groups at 3 days (n = 8, 4 per group). (b) At 6 days, the carrageenan-exposed group demonstrated significant elevations of glucose (unpaired t-test, two-tailed; n = 8). (c) At 9 days, GTT was markedly abnormal (unpaired t-test, two-tailed; n = 8). (d) Area under the curve measurements confirm differences between control and carrageenan-exposed mice on days 6 and 9. (e) Weights were similar between the carrageenan-exposed and the control mice on days 3 and 6 and slightly less in the carrageenan-exposed mice on day 9.

Mentions: Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed in control (n = 8) and carrageenan-treated mice (n = 8) after exposure for short durations, to determine the minimum amount of carrageenan exposure required to cause glucose intolerance. At 3 days (Figure 1(a)), glucose tolerance was similar to the controls; however, by 6 days (Figure 1(b)) and again at 9 days (Figure 1(c)), carrageenan exposure caused significant elevations at 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes, compared to control. Area under the curve confirmed significant differences for days 6 and 9. Average weights were similar on days 3 and 6 and slightly less in the carrageenan-exposed mice on day 9 (P < 0.05, unpaired t-test, two-tailed). The mice on the high fat diet with carrageenan drank less water than the mice on carrageenan without high fat (1.63 ± 0.04 mL/d versus 2.06 ± 0.02 mL/d; P = 0.004).


Exposure to common food additive carrageenan alone leads to fasting hyperglycemia and in combination with high fat diet exacerbates glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia without effect on weight.

Bhattacharyya S, Feferman L, Unterman T, Tobacman JK - J Diabetes Res (2015)

Glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) on days 3, 6, and 9. (a) GTT showed no differences in blood glucose levels between control and carrageenan-exposed groups at 3 days (n = 8, 4 per group). (b) At 6 days, the carrageenan-exposed group demonstrated significant elevations of glucose (unpaired t-test, two-tailed; n = 8). (c) At 9 days, GTT was markedly abnormal (unpaired t-test, two-tailed; n = 8). (d) Area under the curve measurements confirm differences between control and carrageenan-exposed mice on days 6 and 9. (e) Weights were similar between the carrageenan-exposed and the control mice on days 3 and 6 and slightly less in the carrageenan-exposed mice on day 9.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390184&req=5

fig1: Glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) on days 3, 6, and 9. (a) GTT showed no differences in blood glucose levels between control and carrageenan-exposed groups at 3 days (n = 8, 4 per group). (b) At 6 days, the carrageenan-exposed group demonstrated significant elevations of glucose (unpaired t-test, two-tailed; n = 8). (c) At 9 days, GTT was markedly abnormal (unpaired t-test, two-tailed; n = 8). (d) Area under the curve measurements confirm differences between control and carrageenan-exposed mice on days 6 and 9. (e) Weights were similar between the carrageenan-exposed and the control mice on days 3 and 6 and slightly less in the carrageenan-exposed mice on day 9.
Mentions: Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed in control (n = 8) and carrageenan-treated mice (n = 8) after exposure for short durations, to determine the minimum amount of carrageenan exposure required to cause glucose intolerance. At 3 days (Figure 1(a)), glucose tolerance was similar to the controls; however, by 6 days (Figure 1(b)) and again at 9 days (Figure 1(c)), carrageenan exposure caused significant elevations at 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes, compared to control. Area under the curve confirmed significant differences for days 6 and 9. Average weights were similar on days 3 and 6 and slightly less in the carrageenan-exposed mice on day 9 (P < 0.05, unpaired t-test, two-tailed). The mice on the high fat diet with carrageenan drank less water than the mice on carrageenan without high fat (1.63 ± 0.04 mL/d versus 2.06 ± 0.02 mL/d; P = 0.004).

Bottom Line: In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain.Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption.Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612-4325, USA ; Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612-3728, USA.

ABSTRACT

Aims: Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared.

Results: Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state.

Conclusions: Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus