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High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure.

Campanozzi A, Avallone S, Barbato A, Iacone R, Russo O, De Filippo G, D'Angelo G, Pensabene L, Malamisura B, Cecere G, Micillo M, Francavilla R, Tetro A, Lombardi G, Tonelli L, Castellucci G, Ferraro L, Di Biase R, Lezo A, Salvatore S, Paoletti S, Siani A, Galeone D, Strazzullo P, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program Study Gro - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level.The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake.These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pediatrics, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure.

Objective: To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health.

Population and methods: The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures.

Results: The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population.

Conclusions: The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gender-specific association between body mass index and 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (data from 10 Italian regions, age 6–18 years, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program).
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pone.0121183.g003: Gender-specific association between body mass index and 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (data from 10 Italian regions, age 6–18 years, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program).

Mentions: The gender-specific association between body mass index and 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion is shown in Table 2 and Fig. 3. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium excretion and, to a lower extent, urinary potassium excretion were directly related to age and BMI-Z-score in simple linear correlation analysis (Table 3). In this same analysis, systolic BP (expressed as z-score) was also directly related to 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion (Table 3). An exhaustive representation of multiple linear regression analysis of these associations accounting for potential confounding by age and body mass is given by the summary models reported in Table 4. Overall, age and body mass were the two main determinants of systolic BP in the whole population as well as separately in boys and girls. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium excretion was weakly related to systolic BP Z-score in the whole population, but not in separate analyses of boys and girls, even upon adjustment for age and BMI.


High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure.

Campanozzi A, Avallone S, Barbato A, Iacone R, Russo O, De Filippo G, D'Angelo G, Pensabene L, Malamisura B, Cecere G, Micillo M, Francavilla R, Tetro A, Lombardi G, Tonelli L, Castellucci G, Ferraro L, Di Biase R, Lezo A, Salvatore S, Paoletti S, Siani A, Galeone D, Strazzullo P, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program Study Gro - PLoS ONE (2015)

Gender-specific association between body mass index and 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (data from 10 Italian regions, age 6–18 years, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390153&req=5

pone.0121183.g003: Gender-specific association between body mass index and 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (data from 10 Italian regions, age 6–18 years, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program).
Mentions: The gender-specific association between body mass index and 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion is shown in Table 2 and Fig. 3. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium excretion and, to a lower extent, urinary potassium excretion were directly related to age and BMI-Z-score in simple linear correlation analysis (Table 3). In this same analysis, systolic BP (expressed as z-score) was also directly related to 24h urinary sodium and potassium excretion (Table 3). An exhaustive representation of multiple linear regression analysis of these associations accounting for potential confounding by age and body mass is given by the summary models reported in Table 4. Overall, age and body mass were the two main determinants of systolic BP in the whole population as well as separately in boys and girls. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium excretion was weakly related to systolic BP Z-score in the whole population, but not in separate analyses of boys and girls, even upon adjustment for age and BMI.

Bottom Line: The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level.The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake.These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pediatrics, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure.

Objective: To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health.

Population and methods: The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures.

Results: The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population.

Conclusions: The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus