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High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure.

Campanozzi A, Avallone S, Barbato A, Iacone R, Russo O, De Filippo G, D'Angelo G, Pensabene L, Malamisura B, Cecere G, Micillo M, Francavilla R, Tetro A, Lombardi G, Tonelli L, Castellucci G, Ferraro L, Di Biase R, Lezo A, Salvatore S, Paoletti S, Siani A, Galeone D, Strazzullo P, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program Study Gro - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level.The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake.These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pediatrics, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure.

Objective: To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health.

Population and methods: The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures.

Results: The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population.

Conclusions: The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gender-specific frequency distribution of 24-hour urinary potassium excretion in boys (A) and girls (B) (data from 10 Italian regions, age 6–18 years, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program).The insets in the figures report the mean values of electrolyte excretion by development stage and denote the percentage of individuals complying with the respective adequate intakes as established by the Italian Society for Human Nutrition and the Institute for Food Research and Nutrition (ref. 18). *Data based on the assumption that 24h urinary sodium excretion provides an estimate of daily potassium intake.
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pone.0121183.g002: Gender-specific frequency distribution of 24-hour urinary potassium excretion in boys (A) and girls (B) (data from 10 Italian regions, age 6–18 years, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program).The insets in the figures report the mean values of electrolyte excretion by development stage and denote the percentage of individuals complying with the respective adequate intakes as established by the Italian Society for Human Nutrition and the Institute for Food Research and Nutrition (ref. 18). *Data based on the assumption that 24h urinary sodium excretion provides an estimate of daily potassium intake.

Mentions: Figs. 1A - 1B and 2A - 2B display the frequency distribution of urinary sodium and potassium excretion by stage of estimated sexual development. A stepwise shift-to-the-right in the frequency distributions of both sodium and potassium excretion was apparent with advancing sexual development. As shown in the figure insets, over 90% of the participants at any developmental stage had a 24h urinary sodium excretion indicating an intake well above the standard dietary target recently set by the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Institute of Food Research and Nutrition [18]. Likewise, less than 3% of the participants appeared to be compliant with the recommended intake for potassium at any developmental stage.


High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure.

Campanozzi A, Avallone S, Barbato A, Iacone R, Russo O, De Filippo G, D'Angelo G, Pensabene L, Malamisura B, Cecere G, Micillo M, Francavilla R, Tetro A, Lombardi G, Tonelli L, Castellucci G, Ferraro L, Di Biase R, Lezo A, Salvatore S, Paoletti S, Siani A, Galeone D, Strazzullo P, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program Study Gro - PLoS ONE (2015)

Gender-specific frequency distribution of 24-hour urinary potassium excretion in boys (A) and girls (B) (data from 10 Italian regions, age 6–18 years, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program).The insets in the figures report the mean values of electrolyte excretion by development stage and denote the percentage of individuals complying with the respective adequate intakes as established by the Italian Society for Human Nutrition and the Institute for Food Research and Nutrition (ref. 18). *Data based on the assumption that 24h urinary sodium excretion provides an estimate of daily potassium intake.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390153&req=5

pone.0121183.g002: Gender-specific frequency distribution of 24-hour urinary potassium excretion in boys (A) and girls (B) (data from 10 Italian regions, age 6–18 years, MINISAL-GIRCSI Program).The insets in the figures report the mean values of electrolyte excretion by development stage and denote the percentage of individuals complying with the respective adequate intakes as established by the Italian Society for Human Nutrition and the Institute for Food Research and Nutrition (ref. 18). *Data based on the assumption that 24h urinary sodium excretion provides an estimate of daily potassium intake.
Mentions: Figs. 1A - 1B and 2A - 2B display the frequency distribution of urinary sodium and potassium excretion by stage of estimated sexual development. A stepwise shift-to-the-right in the frequency distributions of both sodium and potassium excretion was apparent with advancing sexual development. As shown in the figure insets, over 90% of the participants at any developmental stage had a 24h urinary sodium excretion indicating an intake well above the standard dietary target recently set by the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Institute of Food Research and Nutrition [18]. Likewise, less than 3% of the participants appeared to be compliant with the recommended intake for potassium at any developmental stage.

Bottom Line: The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level.The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake.These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Pediatrics, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure.

Objective: To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health.

Population and methods: The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls) aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9) who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures.

Results: The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt) per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt) among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g) and 36 mmol (1.40 g), respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population.

Conclusions: The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus