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Effects of maternal diet and exercise during pregnancy on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and fat of weanling rats.

Raipuria M, Bahari H, Morris MJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS), with no effect in those from obese dams.Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS), with reduced glucose in male FE pups.Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater effects in male than female offspring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or high fat (F) diet for 6 weeks before mating. Half underwent voluntary exercise (CE/FE) with a running wheel introduced 10 days prior to mating and available until the dams delivered; others remained sedentary (CS/FS). Male and female pups were killed at postnatal day (PND)19 and retroperitoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for gene expression. Lean and obese dams achieved similar modest levels of exercise. At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS), with no effect in those from obese dams. At PND19, maternal obesity significantly increased offspring body weight and adiposity, with no effect of maternal exercise. Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS), with reduced glucose in male FE pups. In males, maternal obesity significantly decreased muscle myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expressions (FS vs CS); these were normalized by exercise. Maternal exercise upregulated adipose GLUT4, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) mRNA expression in offspring of dams consuming chow. Modest voluntary exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight in pups from lean dams. Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater effects in male than female offspring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative gene expression in RpWAT of male and female offspring at PND19.Male: GLUT4 (A), PGC1α (C) and TNF-α (E), Female: GLUT4 (B), PGC1α (D) and TNF-α (F), gene expression. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. The first letter describes maternal diet; chow (C) or HFD (F) and the second letter describes maternal activity; sedentary (S) or exercise (E). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with maternal diet and maternal activity as factors, followed by post hoc LSD comparison. *P < .05; **P < .01 maternal diet effect; †P < .05; ††P < .01 maternal exercise effect.
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pone.0120980.g003: Relative gene expression in RpWAT of male and female offspring at PND19.Male: GLUT4 (A), PGC1α (C) and TNF-α (E), Female: GLUT4 (B), PGC1α (D) and TNF-α (F), gene expression. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. The first letter describes maternal diet; chow (C) or HFD (F) and the second letter describes maternal activity; sedentary (S) or exercise (E). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with maternal diet and maternal activity as factors, followed by post hoc LSD comparison. *P < .05; **P < .01 maternal diet effect; †P < .05; ††P < .01 maternal exercise effect.

Mentions: In RpWAT, the mRNA expression of GLUT4 and PGC1α were upregulated in male and female offspring born to lean exercised dams compared to sedentary dams, whereas no effect of exercise was observed in obese dams’ offspring (CE vs CS, P < .01, Fig. 3). For markers related to inflammatory signaling pathways, TNFα was significantly increased by exercise in male pups from both lean and obese dams (CE vs CS, FE vs FS, P < .05, Fig. 3). For IL-6 a similar pattern was observed however obesity appeared to dampen the impact of exercise on IL-6 mRNA in offspring of obese dams (CE 2.5±0.5 vs CS 0.87±0.2; FE 1.58±0.3 vs FS 0.87±0.1, P<0.05). In females, the mRNA expression of TNF-α was significantly increased in the pups from lean exercised dams (CE vs CS, P < .05, Fig. 3). As very low/inconsistent IL-6 expression was observed in RpWAT from females, these data are not shown.


Effects of maternal diet and exercise during pregnancy on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and fat of weanling rats.

Raipuria M, Bahari H, Morris MJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Relative gene expression in RpWAT of male and female offspring at PND19.Male: GLUT4 (A), PGC1α (C) and TNF-α (E), Female: GLUT4 (B), PGC1α (D) and TNF-α (F), gene expression. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. The first letter describes maternal diet; chow (C) or HFD (F) and the second letter describes maternal activity; sedentary (S) or exercise (E). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with maternal diet and maternal activity as factors, followed by post hoc LSD comparison. *P < .05; **P < .01 maternal diet effect; †P < .05; ††P < .01 maternal exercise effect.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390148&req=5

pone.0120980.g003: Relative gene expression in RpWAT of male and female offspring at PND19.Male: GLUT4 (A), PGC1α (C) and TNF-α (E), Female: GLUT4 (B), PGC1α (D) and TNF-α (F), gene expression. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. The first letter describes maternal diet; chow (C) or HFD (F) and the second letter describes maternal activity; sedentary (S) or exercise (E). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with maternal diet and maternal activity as factors, followed by post hoc LSD comparison. *P < .05; **P < .01 maternal diet effect; †P < .05; ††P < .01 maternal exercise effect.
Mentions: In RpWAT, the mRNA expression of GLUT4 and PGC1α were upregulated in male and female offspring born to lean exercised dams compared to sedentary dams, whereas no effect of exercise was observed in obese dams’ offspring (CE vs CS, P < .01, Fig. 3). For markers related to inflammatory signaling pathways, TNFα was significantly increased by exercise in male pups from both lean and obese dams (CE vs CS, FE vs FS, P < .05, Fig. 3). For IL-6 a similar pattern was observed however obesity appeared to dampen the impact of exercise on IL-6 mRNA in offspring of obese dams (CE 2.5±0.5 vs CS 0.87±0.2; FE 1.58±0.3 vs FS 0.87±0.1, P<0.05). In females, the mRNA expression of TNF-α was significantly increased in the pups from lean exercised dams (CE vs CS, P < .05, Fig. 3). As very low/inconsistent IL-6 expression was observed in RpWAT from females, these data are not shown.

Bottom Line: At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS), with no effect in those from obese dams.Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS), with reduced glucose in male FE pups.Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater effects in male than female offspring.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or high fat (F) diet for 6 weeks before mating. Half underwent voluntary exercise (CE/FE) with a running wheel introduced 10 days prior to mating and available until the dams delivered; others remained sedentary (CS/FS). Male and female pups were killed at postnatal day (PND)19 and retroperitoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for gene expression. Lean and obese dams achieved similar modest levels of exercise. At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS), with no effect in those from obese dams. At PND19, maternal obesity significantly increased offspring body weight and adiposity, with no effect of maternal exercise. Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS), with reduced glucose in male FE pups. In males, maternal obesity significantly decreased muscle myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expressions (FS vs CS); these were normalized by exercise. Maternal exercise upregulated adipose GLUT4, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) mRNA expression in offspring of dams consuming chow. Modest voluntary exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight in pups from lean dams. Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater effects in male than female offspring.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus