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Combined ginger extract & Gelam honey modulate Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway genes in colon cancer HT29 cells.

Tahir AA, Sani NF, Murad NA, Makpol S, Ngah WZ, Yusof YA - Nutr J (2015)

Bottom Line: The cells were divided into 4 groups: the first group represents HT29 cells without treatment, the second and third groups were cells treated singly with either ginger or Gelam honey, respectively, and the last group represents cells treated with ginger and Gelam honey combined.Cell death in response to the combined ginger and Gelam honey treatment was associated with the stimulation of early apoptosis (upregulation of caspase 9 and IκB genes) accompanied by downregulation of the KRAS, ERK, AKT, Bcl-xL, NFkB (p65) genes in a synergistic manner.In conclusion, the combination of ginger and Gelam honey may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for inducing the death of colon cancer cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. analbaik@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The interconnected Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways play a central role in colorectal tumorigenesis, and they are targets for elucidating mechanisms involved in attempts to induce colon cancer cell death. Both ginger (Zingiber officinale) and honey have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor and anti-inflammation properties against many types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. However, there are currently no reports showing the combined effect of these two dietary compounds in cancer growth inhibition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of crude ginger extract and Gelam honey in combination as potential cancer chemopreventive agents against the colorectal cancer cell line HT29.

Methods: The cells were divided into 4 groups: the first group represents HT29 cells without treatment, the second and third groups were cells treated singly with either ginger or Gelam honey, respectively, and the last group represents cells treated with ginger and Gelam honey combined.

Results: The results of MTS assay showed that the IC50 of ginger and Gelam honey alone were 5.2 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC50 of the combination treatment was 3 mg/ml of ginger plus 27 mg/ml of Gelam honey with a combination index of < 1, suggesting synergism. Cell death in response to the combined ginger and Gelam honey treatment was associated with the stimulation of early apoptosis (upregulation of caspase 9 and IκB genes) accompanied by downregulation of the KRAS, ERK, AKT, Bcl-xL, NFkB (p65) genes in a synergistic manner.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the combination of ginger and Gelam honey may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for inducing the death of colon cancer cells.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of ginger and Gelam honey combined on viability of HT29 cells. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay after 24 hour treatment with increasing concentrations of ginger and Gelam honey combined. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. *(p < 0.05 ) significant compared to without treatment.
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Fig2: Effects of ginger and Gelam honey combined on viability of HT29 cells. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay after 24 hour treatment with increasing concentrations of ginger and Gelam honey combined. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. *(p < 0.05 ) significant compared to without treatment.

Mentions: The combined treatment doses chosen for ginger (2, 3 and 4 mg/ml) and Gelam honey (10 to 70 mg/ml) were lower than the IC50 values of the individual treatments. A dose of 2 mg/ml of ginger needed a higher concentration of honey (67 mg/ml) to achieve the required IC50, whereas both 3 and 4 mg/ml of ginger required lower concentrations of Gelam honey (27 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml, respectively) to achieve the required IC50 (Figure 2). Table 2 shows that the combination index (CI) for 2 mg/ml of ginger with 67 mg/ml of Gelam honey is 1.21 (CI > 1), which suggests an antagonistic effect. The combinations of 3 and 4 mg/ml of ginger with 27 and 10 mg/ml of Gelam honey showed CI values of 0.92 and 0.90, respectively, indicating a synergistic effect between the two compounds.Figure 2


Combined ginger extract & Gelam honey modulate Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway genes in colon cancer HT29 cells.

Tahir AA, Sani NF, Murad NA, Makpol S, Ngah WZ, Yusof YA - Nutr J (2015)

Effects of ginger and Gelam honey combined on viability of HT29 cells. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay after 24 hour treatment with increasing concentrations of ginger and Gelam honey combined. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. *(p < 0.05 ) significant compared to without treatment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4390091&req=5

Fig2: Effects of ginger and Gelam honey combined on viability of HT29 cells. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay after 24 hour treatment with increasing concentrations of ginger and Gelam honey combined. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. *(p < 0.05 ) significant compared to without treatment.
Mentions: The combined treatment doses chosen for ginger (2, 3 and 4 mg/ml) and Gelam honey (10 to 70 mg/ml) were lower than the IC50 values of the individual treatments. A dose of 2 mg/ml of ginger needed a higher concentration of honey (67 mg/ml) to achieve the required IC50, whereas both 3 and 4 mg/ml of ginger required lower concentrations of Gelam honey (27 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml, respectively) to achieve the required IC50 (Figure 2). Table 2 shows that the combination index (CI) for 2 mg/ml of ginger with 67 mg/ml of Gelam honey is 1.21 (CI > 1), which suggests an antagonistic effect. The combinations of 3 and 4 mg/ml of ginger with 27 and 10 mg/ml of Gelam honey showed CI values of 0.92 and 0.90, respectively, indicating a synergistic effect between the two compounds.Figure 2

Bottom Line: The cells were divided into 4 groups: the first group represents HT29 cells without treatment, the second and third groups were cells treated singly with either ginger or Gelam honey, respectively, and the last group represents cells treated with ginger and Gelam honey combined.Cell death in response to the combined ginger and Gelam honey treatment was associated with the stimulation of early apoptosis (upregulation of caspase 9 and IκB genes) accompanied by downregulation of the KRAS, ERK, AKT, Bcl-xL, NFkB (p65) genes in a synergistic manner.In conclusion, the combination of ginger and Gelam honey may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for inducing the death of colon cancer cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. analbaik@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: The interconnected Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways play a central role in colorectal tumorigenesis, and they are targets for elucidating mechanisms involved in attempts to induce colon cancer cell death. Both ginger (Zingiber officinale) and honey have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor and anti-inflammation properties against many types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. However, there are currently no reports showing the combined effect of these two dietary compounds in cancer growth inhibition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of crude ginger extract and Gelam honey in combination as potential cancer chemopreventive agents against the colorectal cancer cell line HT29.

Methods: The cells were divided into 4 groups: the first group represents HT29 cells without treatment, the second and third groups were cells treated singly with either ginger or Gelam honey, respectively, and the last group represents cells treated with ginger and Gelam honey combined.

Results: The results of MTS assay showed that the IC50 of ginger and Gelam honey alone were 5.2 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC50 of the combination treatment was 3 mg/ml of ginger plus 27 mg/ml of Gelam honey with a combination index of < 1, suggesting synergism. Cell death in response to the combined ginger and Gelam honey treatment was associated with the stimulation of early apoptosis (upregulation of caspase 9 and IκB genes) accompanied by downregulation of the KRAS, ERK, AKT, Bcl-xL, NFkB (p65) genes in a synergistic manner.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the combination of ginger and Gelam honey may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for inducing the death of colon cancer cells.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus