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Effect of the physiognomy of Attalea butyracea (Arecoideae) on population density and age distribution of Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae).

Urbano P, Poveda C, Molina J - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: In its natural forest environment, this triatomine is mainly found in palm tree crowns, where it easily establishes and develops dense populations.The relative population density of R. prolixus on natural A. butyracea groves is associated with the palm's height, number of leaves and crown volume.A higher density of R. prolixus was found as the palm tree height increased and as the distance of the palm with respect to the forest border decreased, especially towards anthropically intervened areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Tropical - CIMPAT, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1 No. 18A-10, Bloque A, Bogotá, Colombia. plurbanus@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859 is one of the main vectors of Trypanosoma (Schyzotrypanum) cruzi Chagas, 1909. In its natural forest environment, this triatomine is mainly found in palm tree crowns, where it easily establishes and develops dense populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physiognomy and reproductive status of Attalea butyracea on the population relative density and age structure of R. prolixus and to determine the vector's population stratification according to the vertical and horizontal profile of an A. butyracea forest.

Methods: Using live bait traps, 150 individuals of A. butyracea with different physiognomy and 40 individuals with similar physiognomy (crown size, number of leaves, palm tree height, diameter at breast height, reproductive status) were sampled for triatomines in Yopal, Casanare-Colombia. Temperature and relative humidity were measured in the crown of the palm tree. Entomological indices and natural infection rates were also determined.

Results: The relative population density of R. prolixus on natural A. butyracea groves is associated with the palm's height, number of leaves and crown volume. The young immature stages were present mostly at the crown's base and the advanced immature stages and adults were present mostly at the crown of the palm tree. This distribution correlates with the temperature stability and relative humidity in the base and the fluctuation of both environmental variables in the palm's crown. A higher density of R. prolixus was found as the palm tree height increased and as the distance of the palm with respect to the forest border decreased, especially towards anthropically intervened areas. A density index of 12.6 individuals per palm tree with an infestation index of 88.9% and a colonization index of 98.7% was observed. 85.2% was the infection index with T. cruzi.

Conclusion: The physiognomy of palm trees affects the relative population density and the distribution of developmental stages of R. prolixus. Therefore, they constitute a risk factor for the potential migration of infected insects from wild environments towards residential environments and the subsequent epidemiological risk of transmission of T. cruzi to people.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Vertical and horizontal stratification of the population abundance ofRhodnius prolixusin anAttalea butyraceaforest. A) Abundance of R. prolixus in palm trees with a structural variation in their physiognomy (n = 150 palm trees). B) Abundance of R. prolixus in palm trees with a structural similarity in their physiognomy (n = 40 palm trees).
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Fig5: Vertical and horizontal stratification of the population abundance ofRhodnius prolixusin anAttalea butyraceaforest. A) Abundance of R. prolixus in palm trees with a structural variation in their physiognomy (n = 150 palm trees). B) Abundance of R. prolixus in palm trees with a structural similarity in their physiognomy (n = 40 palm trees).

Mentions: R. prolixus population distribution in palm tree forest: According to the regression analysis carried out with the data of the first sampling, a significant influence of the distance (p = 0.003; r2 = 0.107) and the palm tree height (p = 0.0001; r2 = 0.205) was found. This result indicates a horizontal and vertical stratification of the population density in the forest (Figure 5A). This same analysis, which was carried out on the relative densities found in the 40 palm trees of the second sampling, also showed the same pattern but with a greater significance level for the height of the palm tree (p = 0.00001; r2 = 0.33) (Figure 5B).Figure 5


Effect of the physiognomy of Attalea butyracea (Arecoideae) on population density and age distribution of Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae).

Urbano P, Poveda C, Molina J - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Vertical and horizontal stratification of the population abundance ofRhodnius prolixusin anAttalea butyraceaforest. A) Abundance of R. prolixus in palm trees with a structural variation in their physiognomy (n = 150 palm trees). B) Abundance of R. prolixus in palm trees with a structural similarity in their physiognomy (n = 40 palm trees).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389994&req=5

Fig5: Vertical and horizontal stratification of the population abundance ofRhodnius prolixusin anAttalea butyraceaforest. A) Abundance of R. prolixus in palm trees with a structural variation in their physiognomy (n = 150 palm trees). B) Abundance of R. prolixus in palm trees with a structural similarity in their physiognomy (n = 40 palm trees).
Mentions: R. prolixus population distribution in palm tree forest: According to the regression analysis carried out with the data of the first sampling, a significant influence of the distance (p = 0.003; r2 = 0.107) and the palm tree height (p = 0.0001; r2 = 0.205) was found. This result indicates a horizontal and vertical stratification of the population density in the forest (Figure 5A). This same analysis, which was carried out on the relative densities found in the 40 palm trees of the second sampling, also showed the same pattern but with a greater significance level for the height of the palm tree (p = 0.00001; r2 = 0.33) (Figure 5B).Figure 5

Bottom Line: In its natural forest environment, this triatomine is mainly found in palm tree crowns, where it easily establishes and develops dense populations.The relative population density of R. prolixus on natural A. butyracea groves is associated with the palm's height, number of leaves and crown volume.A higher density of R. prolixus was found as the palm tree height increased and as the distance of the palm with respect to the forest border decreased, especially towards anthropically intervened areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Tropical - CIMPAT, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1 No. 18A-10, Bloque A, Bogotá, Colombia. plurbanus@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859 is one of the main vectors of Trypanosoma (Schyzotrypanum) cruzi Chagas, 1909. In its natural forest environment, this triatomine is mainly found in palm tree crowns, where it easily establishes and develops dense populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physiognomy and reproductive status of Attalea butyracea on the population relative density and age structure of R. prolixus and to determine the vector's population stratification according to the vertical and horizontal profile of an A. butyracea forest.

Methods: Using live bait traps, 150 individuals of A. butyracea with different physiognomy and 40 individuals with similar physiognomy (crown size, number of leaves, palm tree height, diameter at breast height, reproductive status) were sampled for triatomines in Yopal, Casanare-Colombia. Temperature and relative humidity were measured in the crown of the palm tree. Entomological indices and natural infection rates were also determined.

Results: The relative population density of R. prolixus on natural A. butyracea groves is associated with the palm's height, number of leaves and crown volume. The young immature stages were present mostly at the crown's base and the advanced immature stages and adults were present mostly at the crown of the palm tree. This distribution correlates with the temperature stability and relative humidity in the base and the fluctuation of both environmental variables in the palm's crown. A higher density of R. prolixus was found as the palm tree height increased and as the distance of the palm with respect to the forest border decreased, especially towards anthropically intervened areas. A density index of 12.6 individuals per palm tree with an infestation index of 88.9% and a colonization index of 98.7% was observed. 85.2% was the infection index with T. cruzi.

Conclusion: The physiognomy of palm trees affects the relative population density and the distribution of developmental stages of R. prolixus. Therefore, they constitute a risk factor for the potential migration of infected insects from wild environments towards residential environments and the subsequent epidemiological risk of transmission of T. cruzi to people.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus