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Effect of the physiognomy of Attalea butyracea (Arecoideae) on population density and age distribution of Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae).

Urbano P, Poveda C, Molina J - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Bottom Line: In its natural forest environment, this triatomine is mainly found in palm tree crowns, where it easily establishes and develops dense populations.The relative population density of R. prolixus on natural A. butyracea groves is associated with the palm's height, number of leaves and crown volume.A higher density of R. prolixus was found as the palm tree height increased and as the distance of the palm with respect to the forest border decreased, especially towards anthropically intervened areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Tropical - CIMPAT, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1 No. 18A-10, Bloque A, Bogotá, Colombia. plurbanus@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859 is one of the main vectors of Trypanosoma (Schyzotrypanum) cruzi Chagas, 1909. In its natural forest environment, this triatomine is mainly found in palm tree crowns, where it easily establishes and develops dense populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physiognomy and reproductive status of Attalea butyracea on the population relative density and age structure of R. prolixus and to determine the vector's population stratification according to the vertical and horizontal profile of an A. butyracea forest.

Methods: Using live bait traps, 150 individuals of A. butyracea with different physiognomy and 40 individuals with similar physiognomy (crown size, number of leaves, palm tree height, diameter at breast height, reproductive status) were sampled for triatomines in Yopal, Casanare-Colombia. Temperature and relative humidity were measured in the crown of the palm tree. Entomological indices and natural infection rates were also determined.

Results: The relative population density of R. prolixus on natural A. butyracea groves is associated with the palm's height, number of leaves and crown volume. The young immature stages were present mostly at the crown's base and the advanced immature stages and adults were present mostly at the crown of the palm tree. This distribution correlates with the temperature stability and relative humidity in the base and the fluctuation of both environmental variables in the palm's crown. A higher density of R. prolixus was found as the palm tree height increased and as the distance of the palm with respect to the forest border decreased, especially towards anthropically intervened areas. A density index of 12.6 individuals per palm tree with an infestation index of 88.9% and a colonization index of 98.7% was observed. 85.2% was the infection index with T. cruzi.

Conclusion: The physiognomy of palm trees affects the relative population density and the distribution of developmental stages of R. prolixus. Therefore, they constitute a risk factor for the potential migration of infected insects from wild environments towards residential environments and the subsequent epidemiological risk of transmission of T. cruzi to people.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Geographic location of the study area in Colombia. The tree shows the location of the Corinto farm, Corregimiento Morichal in Yopal Casanare, and the points represent each of the individual palm trees sampled and their respective spatial distribution in the forest.
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Fig1: Geographic location of the study area in Colombia. The tree shows the location of the Corinto farm, Corregimiento Morichal in Yopal Casanare, and the points represent each of the individual palm trees sampled and their respective spatial distribution in the forest.

Mentions: Study area: The sampling process was carried out between June and July 2012 in a 14-hectare natural A. butyracea forest that is located on the Corinto farm of the Corregimiento Morichal, Yopal municipality, Casanare, Colombia (5°10′50″North and 72°16′38″West). Gallery forests with different degrees of disturbance were observed in the study area. Disturbance mainly included cleared land for raising crops (corn, yucca and banana trees) and developing land for commercial purposes (grasslands for domestic livestock). Fragments of forests with palm trees of Attalea butyracea can be observed in this grassland landscape. Inside and close to the borders of the gallery forests wild fauna including opossums, bats, primates and anteater were observed. According to Romero et al. [36], this site corresponds to a dense high floodplain forest in the Cravo Sur River at 210 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) (Figure 1).Figure 1


Effect of the physiognomy of Attalea butyracea (Arecoideae) on population density and age distribution of Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae).

Urbano P, Poveda C, Molina J - Parasit Vectors (2015)

Geographic location of the study area in Colombia. The tree shows the location of the Corinto farm, Corregimiento Morichal in Yopal Casanare, and the points represent each of the individual palm trees sampled and their respective spatial distribution in the forest.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389994&req=5

Fig1: Geographic location of the study area in Colombia. The tree shows the location of the Corinto farm, Corregimiento Morichal in Yopal Casanare, and the points represent each of the individual palm trees sampled and their respective spatial distribution in the forest.
Mentions: Study area: The sampling process was carried out between June and July 2012 in a 14-hectare natural A. butyracea forest that is located on the Corinto farm of the Corregimiento Morichal, Yopal municipality, Casanare, Colombia (5°10′50″North and 72°16′38″West). Gallery forests with different degrees of disturbance were observed in the study area. Disturbance mainly included cleared land for raising crops (corn, yucca and banana trees) and developing land for commercial purposes (grasslands for domestic livestock). Fragments of forests with palm trees of Attalea butyracea can be observed in this grassland landscape. Inside and close to the borders of the gallery forests wild fauna including opossums, bats, primates and anteater were observed. According to Romero et al. [36], this site corresponds to a dense high floodplain forest in the Cravo Sur River at 210 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) (Figure 1).Figure 1

Bottom Line: In its natural forest environment, this triatomine is mainly found in palm tree crowns, where it easily establishes and develops dense populations.The relative population density of R. prolixus on natural A. butyracea groves is associated with the palm's height, number of leaves and crown volume.A higher density of R. prolixus was found as the palm tree height increased and as the distance of the palm with respect to the forest border decreased, especially towards anthropically intervened areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Tropical - CIMPAT, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1 No. 18A-10, Bloque A, Bogotá, Colombia. plurbanus@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859 is one of the main vectors of Trypanosoma (Schyzotrypanum) cruzi Chagas, 1909. In its natural forest environment, this triatomine is mainly found in palm tree crowns, where it easily establishes and develops dense populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physiognomy and reproductive status of Attalea butyracea on the population relative density and age structure of R. prolixus and to determine the vector's population stratification according to the vertical and horizontal profile of an A. butyracea forest.

Methods: Using live bait traps, 150 individuals of A. butyracea with different physiognomy and 40 individuals with similar physiognomy (crown size, number of leaves, palm tree height, diameter at breast height, reproductive status) were sampled for triatomines in Yopal, Casanare-Colombia. Temperature and relative humidity were measured in the crown of the palm tree. Entomological indices and natural infection rates were also determined.

Results: The relative population density of R. prolixus on natural A. butyracea groves is associated with the palm's height, number of leaves and crown volume. The young immature stages were present mostly at the crown's base and the advanced immature stages and adults were present mostly at the crown of the palm tree. This distribution correlates with the temperature stability and relative humidity in the base and the fluctuation of both environmental variables in the palm's crown. A higher density of R. prolixus was found as the palm tree height increased and as the distance of the palm with respect to the forest border decreased, especially towards anthropically intervened areas. A density index of 12.6 individuals per palm tree with an infestation index of 88.9% and a colonization index of 98.7% was observed. 85.2% was the infection index with T. cruzi.

Conclusion: The physiognomy of palm trees affects the relative population density and the distribution of developmental stages of R. prolixus. Therefore, they constitute a risk factor for the potential migration of infected insects from wild environments towards residential environments and the subsequent epidemiological risk of transmission of T. cruzi to people.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus