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Luminex and other multiplex high throughput technologies for the identification of, and host response to, environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes.

Purohit S, Sharma A, She JX - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite several decades of research in the area, these interactions remain poorly understood.Recent development in multiplex technologies has enabled systematic evaluation of different classes of molecules or macroparticles in a high throughput manner.However, the use of multiplex assays in type 1 diabetes research is limited to cytokine assays.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine (CBGM), Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA ; Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

ABSTRACT
Complex interactions between a series of environmental factors and genes result in progression to clinical type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals. Despite several decades of research in the area, these interactions remain poorly understood. Several studies have yielded associations of certain foods, infections, and immunizations with the onset and progression of diabetes autoimmunity, but most findings are still inconclusive. Environmental triggers are difficult to identify mainly due to (i) large number and complex nature of environmental exposures, including bacteria, viruses, dietary factors, and environmental pollutants, (ii) reliance on low throughput technology, (iii) less efforts in quantifying host response, (iv) long silent period between the exposure and clinical onset of T1D which may lead to loss of the exposure fingerprints, and (v) limited sample sets. Recent development in multiplex technologies has enabled systematic evaluation of different classes of molecules or macroparticles in a high throughput manner. However, the use of multiplex assays in type 1 diabetes research is limited to cytokine assays. In this review, we will discuss the potential use of multiplex high throughput technologies in identification of environmental triggers and host response in type 1 diabetes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Luminex bead arrays could be used to detect different classes of environmental triggers. (a) Protein(s), (b) monoclonal (MAb) or polyclonal (PAb) antibodies, (c) viruses, (d) bacterial cell wall components, (e) DNA from virus/bacteria, and (f) chemicals/drugs can be covalently coupled to the beads. Coupled entities can be detected using fluorescently labeled appropriate detection agents.
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fig2: Luminex bead arrays could be used to detect different classes of environmental triggers. (a) Protein(s), (b) monoclonal (MAb) or polyclonal (PAb) antibodies, (c) viruses, (d) bacterial cell wall components, (e) DNA from virus/bacteria, and (f) chemicals/drugs can be covalently coupled to the beads. Coupled entities can be detected using fluorescently labeled appropriate detection agents.

Mentions: Bead-based multiplex assays represent probably the most commonly used format developed by several companies. Multianalyte profiling (xMAP) technology from Luminex (http://www.luminexcorp.com/) and several other companies employ proprietary bead sets which are distinguishable under flow cytometry (Figure 2). The platform is a suspension array where capture moieties are covalently coupled with internally dyed microspheres, and phycoerythrin-labeled anti-human antibodies bind to the specific antigen-antibody complex on the bead set. Response is thus recognized and measured by the differences in both bead sets, with fluorogenic emissions detected using red (bead set) and green (detection of entities) lasers. The flexibility of the system allows covalent coupling and detection of several different classes of molecules or macroparticles.


Luminex and other multiplex high throughput technologies for the identification of, and host response to, environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes.

Purohit S, Sharma A, She JX - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Luminex bead arrays could be used to detect different classes of environmental triggers. (a) Protein(s), (b) monoclonal (MAb) or polyclonal (PAb) antibodies, (c) viruses, (d) bacterial cell wall components, (e) DNA from virus/bacteria, and (f) chemicals/drugs can be covalently coupled to the beads. Coupled entities can be detected using fluorescently labeled appropriate detection agents.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389818&req=5

fig2: Luminex bead arrays could be used to detect different classes of environmental triggers. (a) Protein(s), (b) monoclonal (MAb) or polyclonal (PAb) antibodies, (c) viruses, (d) bacterial cell wall components, (e) DNA from virus/bacteria, and (f) chemicals/drugs can be covalently coupled to the beads. Coupled entities can be detected using fluorescently labeled appropriate detection agents.
Mentions: Bead-based multiplex assays represent probably the most commonly used format developed by several companies. Multianalyte profiling (xMAP) technology from Luminex (http://www.luminexcorp.com/) and several other companies employ proprietary bead sets which are distinguishable under flow cytometry (Figure 2). The platform is a suspension array where capture moieties are covalently coupled with internally dyed microspheres, and phycoerythrin-labeled anti-human antibodies bind to the specific antigen-antibody complex on the bead set. Response is thus recognized and measured by the differences in both bead sets, with fluorogenic emissions detected using red (bead set) and green (detection of entities) lasers. The flexibility of the system allows covalent coupling and detection of several different classes of molecules or macroparticles.

Bottom Line: Despite several decades of research in the area, these interactions remain poorly understood.Recent development in multiplex technologies has enabled systematic evaluation of different classes of molecules or macroparticles in a high throughput manner.However, the use of multiplex assays in type 1 diabetes research is limited to cytokine assays.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine (CBGM), Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA ; Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

ABSTRACT
Complex interactions between a series of environmental factors and genes result in progression to clinical type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals. Despite several decades of research in the area, these interactions remain poorly understood. Several studies have yielded associations of certain foods, infections, and immunizations with the onset and progression of diabetes autoimmunity, but most findings are still inconclusive. Environmental triggers are difficult to identify mainly due to (i) large number and complex nature of environmental exposures, including bacteria, viruses, dietary factors, and environmental pollutants, (ii) reliance on low throughput technology, (iii) less efforts in quantifying host response, (iv) long silent period between the exposure and clinical onset of T1D which may lead to loss of the exposure fingerprints, and (v) limited sample sets. Recent development in multiplex technologies has enabled systematic evaluation of different classes of molecules or macroparticles in a high throughput manner. However, the use of multiplex assays in type 1 diabetes research is limited to cytokine assays. In this review, we will discuss the potential use of multiplex high throughput technologies in identification of environmental triggers and host response in type 1 diabetes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus