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Luminex and other multiplex high throughput technologies for the identification of, and host response to, environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes.

Purohit S, Sharma A, She JX - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite several decades of research in the area, these interactions remain poorly understood.Recent development in multiplex technologies has enabled systematic evaluation of different classes of molecules or macroparticles in a high throughput manner.However, the use of multiplex assays in type 1 diabetes research is limited to cytokine assays.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine (CBGM), Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA ; Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

ABSTRACT
Complex interactions between a series of environmental factors and genes result in progression to clinical type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals. Despite several decades of research in the area, these interactions remain poorly understood. Several studies have yielded associations of certain foods, infections, and immunizations with the onset and progression of diabetes autoimmunity, but most findings are still inconclusive. Environmental triggers are difficult to identify mainly due to (i) large number and complex nature of environmental exposures, including bacteria, viruses, dietary factors, and environmental pollutants, (ii) reliance on low throughput technology, (iii) less efforts in quantifying host response, (iv) long silent period between the exposure and clinical onset of T1D which may lead to loss of the exposure fingerprints, and (v) limited sample sets. Recent development in multiplex technologies has enabled systematic evaluation of different classes of molecules or macroparticles in a high throughput manner. However, the use of multiplex assays in type 1 diabetes research is limited to cytokine assays. In this review, we will discuss the potential use of multiplex high throughput technologies in identification of environmental triggers and host response in type 1 diabetes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Susceptibility genes and environmental triggers in development and progression of type 1 diabetes. In genetically susceptible individuals, different classes of environmental exposures such as diet, infection, and pollutants lead to increase in peripheral and mucosal inflammation causing leaky gut and aberrant immune reaction towards pancreatic β-cells.
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fig1: Susceptibility genes and environmental triggers in development and progression of type 1 diabetes. In genetically susceptible individuals, different classes of environmental exposures such as diet, infection, and pollutants lead to increase in peripheral and mucosal inflammation causing leaky gut and aberrant immune reaction towards pancreatic β-cells.

Mentions: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from complex yet poorly defined interactions between environmental agents, the immune system, and genetic factors (Figure 1). T1D is a chronic T-cell mediated disease, characterized by selective loss of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets [1]. There is an annual average of 3% increase in T1D incidence worldwide and the incidence rates are also increasing in the countries with no previous record of having T1D [2, 3]. It is believed that genetic susceptibility is a prerequisite for the development of T1D; however, not all genetically predisposed individuals develop clinical disease and subjects with low risk or protective genes also have been found to develop T1D. These observations suggest that apart from genetic susceptibility additional factors trigger the process of β-cell autoimmunity and subsequent clinical disease.


Luminex and other multiplex high throughput technologies for the identification of, and host response to, environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes.

Purohit S, Sharma A, She JX - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Susceptibility genes and environmental triggers in development and progression of type 1 diabetes. In genetically susceptible individuals, different classes of environmental exposures such as diet, infection, and pollutants lead to increase in peripheral and mucosal inflammation causing leaky gut and aberrant immune reaction towards pancreatic β-cells.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389818&req=5

fig1: Susceptibility genes and environmental triggers in development and progression of type 1 diabetes. In genetically susceptible individuals, different classes of environmental exposures such as diet, infection, and pollutants lead to increase in peripheral and mucosal inflammation causing leaky gut and aberrant immune reaction towards pancreatic β-cells.
Mentions: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from complex yet poorly defined interactions between environmental agents, the immune system, and genetic factors (Figure 1). T1D is a chronic T-cell mediated disease, characterized by selective loss of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets [1]. There is an annual average of 3% increase in T1D incidence worldwide and the incidence rates are also increasing in the countries with no previous record of having T1D [2, 3]. It is believed that genetic susceptibility is a prerequisite for the development of T1D; however, not all genetically predisposed individuals develop clinical disease and subjects with low risk or protective genes also have been found to develop T1D. These observations suggest that apart from genetic susceptibility additional factors trigger the process of β-cell autoimmunity and subsequent clinical disease.

Bottom Line: Despite several decades of research in the area, these interactions remain poorly understood.Recent development in multiplex technologies has enabled systematic evaluation of different classes of molecules or macroparticles in a high throughput manner.However, the use of multiplex assays in type 1 diabetes research is limited to cytokine assays.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine (CBGM), Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA ; Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

ABSTRACT
Complex interactions between a series of environmental factors and genes result in progression to clinical type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals. Despite several decades of research in the area, these interactions remain poorly understood. Several studies have yielded associations of certain foods, infections, and immunizations with the onset and progression of diabetes autoimmunity, but most findings are still inconclusive. Environmental triggers are difficult to identify mainly due to (i) large number and complex nature of environmental exposures, including bacteria, viruses, dietary factors, and environmental pollutants, (ii) reliance on low throughput technology, (iii) less efforts in quantifying host response, (iv) long silent period between the exposure and clinical onset of T1D which may lead to loss of the exposure fingerprints, and (v) limited sample sets. Recent development in multiplex technologies has enabled systematic evaluation of different classes of molecules or macroparticles in a high throughput manner. However, the use of multiplex assays in type 1 diabetes research is limited to cytokine assays. In this review, we will discuss the potential use of multiplex high throughput technologies in identification of environmental triggers and host response in type 1 diabetes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus