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Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions.

van Steenbergen H, Haasnoot E, Bocanegra BR, Berretty EW, Hommel B - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands.Here we show that the absence of post-cingulotomy behavioural adaptation reported in this study may have been due to practice effects.The results revealed abolished behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, The Netherlands [2] Leiden University, Institute of Psychology The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex neurons mediate ongoing behavioural adaptation. Nature 488, 218-22 (2012).] recently were able to show that neurons in MCC encode cognitive demand. Importantly, this study also claimed that focal lesions of the MCC abolished behavioural adaptation to cognitive demands. Here we show that the absence of post-cingulotomy behavioural adaptation reported in this study may have been due to practice effects. We run a control condition where we tested subjects before and after a dummy treatment, which substituted cingulotomy with a filler task (presentation of a documentary). The results revealed abolished behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment. Our findings suggest that future work using proper experimental designs is needed to advance the understanding of the causal role of the MCC in behavioural adaptation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Conflict-adaptation scores in reaction time for individual subjects from the convenience sample (a) and the OCD patient sample (b) before and after the dummy treatment.Error bars indicate means ± 2 standard errors across subjects.
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f1: Conflict-adaptation scores in reaction time for individual subjects from the convenience sample (a) and the OCD patient sample (b) before and after the dummy treatment.Error bars indicate means ± 2 standard errors across subjects.

Mentions: Both samples performed the task accurately (mean error rates 4.9% and 1.6% for the convenience and patient sample, respectively). As Figure 1 shows, the majority of individuals showed reduced behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment, consistent with the time-on-task hypothesis. Across individuals, statistically reliable pre-treatment adaptation was observed both in the convenience sample, M = 38 ms, t(6) = 2.64, p = 0.039 and in the patient sample, M = 73 ms, t(5) = 3.01, p = 0.030. As expected, no significant post-treatment adaptation was observed for the convenience sample, M = −41 ms, t(6) = −2.34, p = 0.06, and patient sample, M = 9 ms, t(5) = 0.39, p = 0.71. Critically, as predicted, time-on-task significantly reduced adaptation in post-treatment versus pre-treatment scores in both samples: convenience sample: t(6) = 2.93, p1-sided = 0.013; patient sample: t(5) = 2.43, p1-sided = 0.030; samples collapsed: t(12) = 3.94, p1-sided = 0.001. So our control experiment revealed abolished post-treatment adaptation in the absence of a lesion to the MCC. This suggests that time-on-task can significantly influence conflict adaptation in the MSIT task.


Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions.

van Steenbergen H, Haasnoot E, Bocanegra BR, Berretty EW, Hommel B - Sci Rep (2015)

Conflict-adaptation scores in reaction time for individual subjects from the convenience sample (a) and the OCD patient sample (b) before and after the dummy treatment.Error bars indicate means ± 2 standard errors across subjects.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389810&req=5

f1: Conflict-adaptation scores in reaction time for individual subjects from the convenience sample (a) and the OCD patient sample (b) before and after the dummy treatment.Error bars indicate means ± 2 standard errors across subjects.
Mentions: Both samples performed the task accurately (mean error rates 4.9% and 1.6% for the convenience and patient sample, respectively). As Figure 1 shows, the majority of individuals showed reduced behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment, consistent with the time-on-task hypothesis. Across individuals, statistically reliable pre-treatment adaptation was observed both in the convenience sample, M = 38 ms, t(6) = 2.64, p = 0.039 and in the patient sample, M = 73 ms, t(5) = 3.01, p = 0.030. As expected, no significant post-treatment adaptation was observed for the convenience sample, M = −41 ms, t(6) = −2.34, p = 0.06, and patient sample, M = 9 ms, t(5) = 0.39, p = 0.71. Critically, as predicted, time-on-task significantly reduced adaptation in post-treatment versus pre-treatment scores in both samples: convenience sample: t(6) = 2.93, p1-sided = 0.013; patient sample: t(5) = 2.43, p1-sided = 0.030; samples collapsed: t(12) = 3.94, p1-sided = 0.001. So our control experiment revealed abolished post-treatment adaptation in the absence of a lesion to the MCC. This suggests that time-on-task can significantly influence conflict adaptation in the MSIT task.

Bottom Line: Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands.Here we show that the absence of post-cingulotomy behavioural adaptation reported in this study may have been due to practice effects.The results revealed abolished behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, The Netherlands [2] Leiden University, Institute of Psychology The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex neurons mediate ongoing behavioural adaptation. Nature 488, 218-22 (2012).] recently were able to show that neurons in MCC encode cognitive demand. Importantly, this study also claimed that focal lesions of the MCC abolished behavioural adaptation to cognitive demands. Here we show that the absence of post-cingulotomy behavioural adaptation reported in this study may have been due to practice effects. We run a control condition where we tested subjects before and after a dummy treatment, which substituted cingulotomy with a filler task (presentation of a documentary). The results revealed abolished behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment. Our findings suggest that future work using proper experimental designs is needed to advance the understanding of the causal role of the MCC in behavioural adaptation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus