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The diatom-derived aldehyde decadienal affects life cycle transition in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis through nitric oxide/ERK signalling.

Castellano I, Ercolesi E, Romano G, Ianora A, Palumbo A - Open Biol (2015)

Bottom Line: PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms.DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels.By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are fatty-acid-derived metabolites produced by some microalgae, including different diatom species. PUAs are mainly produced as a wound-activated defence mechanism against microalgal predators or released from senescent cells at the end of a bloom. PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms. Here, we report on the effects of DD on larval development and metamorphosis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ciona larval development is regulated by the cross-talking of different molecular events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, ERK activation and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We report that treatment with DD at the competence larval stage results in a delay in metamorphosis. DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels. By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes. Overall, these results give new insights into the molecular pathways induced in marine organisms after exposure to PUAs during larval development, demonstrating that this aldehyde affects key checkpoints of larval transition from the vegetative to the reproductive life stage.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Proposed model of NO signalling induced by decadienal (DD). DD induces the reduction of endogenous NO levels that leads to the early upregulation of mkp1 (line 1). Mkp1 is responsible for ERK dephosphorylation and downstream changes in gene transcription of the ERK target genes, dhg, mx, ets (line 2).
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RSOB140182F8: Proposed model of NO signalling induced by decadienal (DD). DD induces the reduction of endogenous NO levels that leads to the early upregulation of mkp1 (line 1). Mkp1 is responsible for ERK dephosphorylation and downstream changes in gene transcription of the ERK target genes, dhg, mx, ets (line 2).

Mentions: The above results can be schematically summarized in a model in which NO and ERK signalling cross-talk together in response to DD exposure (figure 8). DD induces the reduction of endogenous NO levels likely owing to GSH depletion. A reduction in NO levels induces the early upregulation of mkp1 with consequent ERK inactivation and changes in downstream transcription of the metabolic enzyme dehydrogenase dhg and the key developmental genes ets and mx, thereby causing a delay in metamorphosis.FigureĀ 8.


The diatom-derived aldehyde decadienal affects life cycle transition in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis through nitric oxide/ERK signalling.

Castellano I, Ercolesi E, Romano G, Ianora A, Palumbo A - Open Biol (2015)

Proposed model of NO signalling induced by decadienal (DD). DD induces the reduction of endogenous NO levels that leads to the early upregulation of mkp1 (line 1). Mkp1 is responsible for ERK dephosphorylation and downstream changes in gene transcription of the ERK target genes, dhg, mx, ets (line 2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389792&req=5

RSOB140182F8: Proposed model of NO signalling induced by decadienal (DD). DD induces the reduction of endogenous NO levels that leads to the early upregulation of mkp1 (line 1). Mkp1 is responsible for ERK dephosphorylation and downstream changes in gene transcription of the ERK target genes, dhg, mx, ets (line 2).
Mentions: The above results can be schematically summarized in a model in which NO and ERK signalling cross-talk together in response to DD exposure (figure 8). DD induces the reduction of endogenous NO levels likely owing to GSH depletion. A reduction in NO levels induces the early upregulation of mkp1 with consequent ERK inactivation and changes in downstream transcription of the metabolic enzyme dehydrogenase dhg and the key developmental genes ets and mx, thereby causing a delay in metamorphosis.FigureĀ 8.

Bottom Line: PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms.DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels.By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are fatty-acid-derived metabolites produced by some microalgae, including different diatom species. PUAs are mainly produced as a wound-activated defence mechanism against microalgal predators or released from senescent cells at the end of a bloom. PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms. Here, we report on the effects of DD on larval development and metamorphosis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ciona larval development is regulated by the cross-talking of different molecular events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, ERK activation and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We report that treatment with DD at the competence larval stage results in a delay in metamorphosis. DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels. By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes. Overall, these results give new insights into the molecular pathways induced in marine organisms after exposure to PUAs during larval development, demonstrating that this aldehyde affects key checkpoints of larval transition from the vegetative to the reproductive life stage.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus