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The diatom-derived aldehyde decadienal affects life cycle transition in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis through nitric oxide/ERK signalling.

Castellano I, Ercolesi E, Romano G, Ianora A, Palumbo A - Open Biol (2015)

Bottom Line: PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms.DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels.By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are fatty-acid-derived metabolites produced by some microalgae, including different diatom species. PUAs are mainly produced as a wound-activated defence mechanism against microalgal predators or released from senescent cells at the end of a bloom. PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms. Here, we report on the effects of DD on larval development and metamorphosis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ciona larval development is regulated by the cross-talking of different molecular events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, ERK activation and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We report that treatment with DD at the competence larval stage results in a delay in metamorphosis. DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels. By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes. Overall, these results give new insights into the molecular pathways induced in marine organisms after exposure to PUAs during larval development, demonstrating that this aldehyde affects key checkpoints of larval transition from the vegetative to the reproductive life stage.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

ERK-related gene regulation in response to decadienal (DD) treatment at different times of larval development. Histograms show the differences in expression levels of analysed genes, as revealed by real-time qPCR. Middle larvae incubated with 0.5 μg ml−1 DD were collected at 2, 4 and 6 h post-treatment. Data are reported as fold differences compared to the control (larvae in seawater without DD, mean ± s.d.). Fold differences equal to or greater than ±2 were considered significant.
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RSOB140182F6: ERK-related gene regulation in response to decadienal (DD) treatment at different times of larval development. Histograms show the differences in expression levels of analysed genes, as revealed by real-time qPCR. Middle larvae incubated with 0.5 μg ml−1 DD were collected at 2, 4 and 6 h post-treatment. Data are reported as fold differences compared to the control (larvae in seawater without DD, mean ± s.d.). Fold differences equal to or greater than ±2 were considered significant.

Mentions: The relative expression of these genes was followed by real-time qPCR experiments, after treating middle larvae with 0.5 µg ml−1 DD (figure 6). Larvae were collected at 2, 4 and 6 h of treatment. The expression of dhg started to progressively increase after 2 h and until 6 h of treatment, whereas ets and mx were downregulated after 2 h and 4–6 h treatment, respectively. mkp1 was found to be upregulated after 2 h treatment, whereas the expression of the other genes, mkp3 and sushi, was unaffected.Figure 6.


The diatom-derived aldehyde decadienal affects life cycle transition in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis through nitric oxide/ERK signalling.

Castellano I, Ercolesi E, Romano G, Ianora A, Palumbo A - Open Biol (2015)

ERK-related gene regulation in response to decadienal (DD) treatment at different times of larval development. Histograms show the differences in expression levels of analysed genes, as revealed by real-time qPCR. Middle larvae incubated with 0.5 μg ml−1 DD were collected at 2, 4 and 6 h post-treatment. Data are reported as fold differences compared to the control (larvae in seawater without DD, mean ± s.d.). Fold differences equal to or greater than ±2 were considered significant.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389792&req=5

RSOB140182F6: ERK-related gene regulation in response to decadienal (DD) treatment at different times of larval development. Histograms show the differences in expression levels of analysed genes, as revealed by real-time qPCR. Middle larvae incubated with 0.5 μg ml−1 DD were collected at 2, 4 and 6 h post-treatment. Data are reported as fold differences compared to the control (larvae in seawater without DD, mean ± s.d.). Fold differences equal to or greater than ±2 were considered significant.
Mentions: The relative expression of these genes was followed by real-time qPCR experiments, after treating middle larvae with 0.5 µg ml−1 DD (figure 6). Larvae were collected at 2, 4 and 6 h of treatment. The expression of dhg started to progressively increase after 2 h and until 6 h of treatment, whereas ets and mx were downregulated after 2 h and 4–6 h treatment, respectively. mkp1 was found to be upregulated after 2 h treatment, whereas the expression of the other genes, mkp3 and sushi, was unaffected.Figure 6.

Bottom Line: PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms.DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels.By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are fatty-acid-derived metabolites produced by some microalgae, including different diatom species. PUAs are mainly produced as a wound-activated defence mechanism against microalgal predators or released from senescent cells at the end of a bloom. PUAs, including 2,4-trans-decadienal (DD), induce deleterious effects on embryonic and larval development of several planktonic and benthic organisms. Here, we report on the effects of DD on larval development and metamorphosis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ciona larval development is regulated by the cross-talking of different molecular events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, ERK activation and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We report that treatment with DD at the competence larval stage results in a delay in metamorphosis. DD affects redox balance by reducing total glutathione and NO levels. By biochemical and quantitative gene expression analysis, we identify the NO-signalling network affected by DD, including the upregulation of ERK phosphatase mkp1 and consequent reduction of ERK phosphorylation, with final changes in the expression of downstream ERK target genes. Overall, these results give new insights into the molecular pathways induced in marine organisms after exposure to PUAs during larval development, demonstrating that this aldehyde affects key checkpoints of larval transition from the vegetative to the reproductive life stage.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus