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Maternal obesity is associated with a reduction in placental taurine transporter activity.

Ditchfield AM, Desforges M, Mills TA, Glazier JD, Wareing M, Mynett K, Sibley CP, Greenwood SL - Int J Obes (Lond) (2014)

Bottom Line: These pregnancy complications are associated with dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta.Placental TauT activity was significantly lower in obese women (BMI⩾30) than women of ideal weight (P<0.03) and inversely related to maternal BMI (19-49 kg m(-)(2); P<0.05; n=61).Long-term exposure (48 h) of placental villous explants to leptin or IL-6 did not affect TauT activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Institute of Human Development, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK [2] Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, St. Mary's Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background/objectives: Maternal obesity increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcome including stillbirth, pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and fetal overgrowth. These pregnancy complications are associated with dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta. Taurine, a β-amino acid with antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, has a role in syncytiotrophoblast development and function and is required for fetal growth and organ development. Taurine is conditionally essential in pregnancy and fetal tissues depend on uptake of taurine from maternal blood. We tested the hypothesis that taurine uptake into placental syncytiotrophoblast by the taurine transporter protein (TauT) is lower in obese women (body mass index (BMI)⩾30 kg m(-)(2)) than in women of ideal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg m(-)(2)) and explored potential regulatory factors.

Subjects/methods: Placentas were collected from term (37-42-week gestation), uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies from women with BMI 19-49 kg m(-)(2). TauT activity was measured as the Na(+)-dependent uptake of (3)H-taurine into placental villous fragments. TauT expression in membrane-enriched placental samples was investigated by western blot. In vitro studies using placental villous explants examined whether leptin or IL-6, adipokines/cytokines that are elevated in maternal obesity, regulates TauT activity.

Results: Placental TauT activity was significantly lower in obese women (BMI⩾30) than women of ideal weight (P<0.03) and inversely related to maternal BMI (19-49 kg m(-)(2); P<0.05; n=61). There was no difference in TauT expression between placentas of ideal weight and obese class III (BMI⩾40) subjects. Long-term exposure (48 h) of placental villous explants to leptin or IL-6 did not affect TauT activity.

Conclusions: Placental TauT activity at term is negatively related to maternal BMI. We propose that the reduction in placental TauT activity in maternal obesity could lower syncytiotrophoblast taurine concentration, compromise placental development and function, and reduce the driving force for taurine efflux to the fetus, thereby increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcome.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Birth weight was positively related to placental weight (least squares linear regression: r2=0.29, P<0.0001; n=61). Maternal BMI was unrelated to (b) birth weight, (c) placental weight and (d) fetal/placental weight ratio (FW:PW; least squares linear regression analysis; P>0.05; n=61).
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fig1: (a) Birth weight was positively related to placental weight (least squares linear regression: r2=0.29, P<0.0001; n=61). Maternal BMI was unrelated to (b) birth weight, (c) placental weight and (d) fetal/placental weight ratio (FW:PW; least squares linear regression analysis; P>0.05; n=61).

Mentions: In the total study group (n=61) there was a significant positive relationship between placental weight and birth weight (Figure 1a) and between placental weight and individualized birth weight centile (least squares linear regression: r2=0.21, P<0.0002; data not shown). Maternal BMI was unrelated to birth weight (between the 10th and 90th centile), placental weight and fetal/placental weight ratio (Figure 1b–d respectively).


Maternal obesity is associated with a reduction in placental taurine transporter activity.

Ditchfield AM, Desforges M, Mills TA, Glazier JD, Wareing M, Mynett K, Sibley CP, Greenwood SL - Int J Obes (Lond) (2014)

(a) Birth weight was positively related to placental weight (least squares linear regression: r2=0.29, P<0.0001; n=61). Maternal BMI was unrelated to (b) birth weight, (c) placental weight and (d) fetal/placental weight ratio (FW:PW; least squares linear regression analysis; P>0.05; n=61).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389721&req=5

fig1: (a) Birth weight was positively related to placental weight (least squares linear regression: r2=0.29, P<0.0001; n=61). Maternal BMI was unrelated to (b) birth weight, (c) placental weight and (d) fetal/placental weight ratio (FW:PW; least squares linear regression analysis; P>0.05; n=61).
Mentions: In the total study group (n=61) there was a significant positive relationship between placental weight and birth weight (Figure 1a) and between placental weight and individualized birth weight centile (least squares linear regression: r2=0.21, P<0.0002; data not shown). Maternal BMI was unrelated to birth weight (between the 10th and 90th centile), placental weight and fetal/placental weight ratio (Figure 1b–d respectively).

Bottom Line: These pregnancy complications are associated with dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta.Placental TauT activity was significantly lower in obese women (BMI⩾30) than women of ideal weight (P<0.03) and inversely related to maternal BMI (19-49 kg m(-)(2); P<0.05; n=61).Long-term exposure (48 h) of placental villous explants to leptin or IL-6 did not affect TauT activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Institute of Human Development, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK [2] Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, St. Mary's Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background/objectives: Maternal obesity increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcome including stillbirth, pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and fetal overgrowth. These pregnancy complications are associated with dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta. Taurine, a β-amino acid with antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, has a role in syncytiotrophoblast development and function and is required for fetal growth and organ development. Taurine is conditionally essential in pregnancy and fetal tissues depend on uptake of taurine from maternal blood. We tested the hypothesis that taurine uptake into placental syncytiotrophoblast by the taurine transporter protein (TauT) is lower in obese women (body mass index (BMI)⩾30 kg m(-)(2)) than in women of ideal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg m(-)(2)) and explored potential regulatory factors.

Subjects/methods: Placentas were collected from term (37-42-week gestation), uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies from women with BMI 19-49 kg m(-)(2). TauT activity was measured as the Na(+)-dependent uptake of (3)H-taurine into placental villous fragments. TauT expression in membrane-enriched placental samples was investigated by western blot. In vitro studies using placental villous explants examined whether leptin or IL-6, adipokines/cytokines that are elevated in maternal obesity, regulates TauT activity.

Results: Placental TauT activity was significantly lower in obese women (BMI⩾30) than women of ideal weight (P<0.03) and inversely related to maternal BMI (19-49 kg m(-)(2); P<0.05; n=61). There was no difference in TauT expression between placentas of ideal weight and obese class III (BMI⩾40) subjects. Long-term exposure (48 h) of placental villous explants to leptin or IL-6 did not affect TauT activity.

Conclusions: Placental TauT activity at term is negatively related to maternal BMI. We propose that the reduction in placental TauT activity in maternal obesity could lower syncytiotrophoblast taurine concentration, compromise placental development and function, and reduce the driving force for taurine efflux to the fetus, thereby increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcome.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus