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Screening tests: a review with examples.

Maxim LD, Niebo R, Utell MJ - Inhal Toxicol (2014)

Bottom Line: This article presents an overview of such tests including the definitions of key technical (sensitivity and specificity) and population characteristics necessary to assess the benefits and limitations of such tests.The importance of careful consideration of the consequences of both false positives and negatives is highlighted.Receiver operating characteristic curves are explained as is the need to carefully select the population group to be tested.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Everest Consulting Associates , Cranbury, NJ , USA and.

ABSTRACT
Screening tests are widely used in medicine to assess the likelihood that members of a defined population have a particular disease. This article presents an overview of such tests including the definitions of key technical (sensitivity and specificity) and population characteristics necessary to assess the benefits and limitations of such tests. Several examples are used to illustrate calculations, including the characteristics of low dose computed tomography as a lung cancer screen, choice of an optimal PSA cutoff and selection of the population to undergo mammography. The importance of careful consideration of the consequences of both false positives and negatives is highlighted. Receiver operating characteristic curves are explained as is the need to carefully select the population group to be tested.

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Positive predictive value from mammography for women in various age groups with and without a family history of cancer according to data provided in Kerlikowske et al. (1993).
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Figure 5: Positive predictive value from mammography for women in various age groups with and without a family history of cancer according to data provided in Kerlikowske et al. (1993).

Mentions: To illustrate the selection of a relevant population subgroup, we use an example from a study of breast cancer screening. Kerlikowske et al. (1993) reported on a cross-sectional study of 31 814 women aged 30 years and older referred for mammography at the University of California. They segmented the population into women of various age groups with and without a family history of breast cancer. Figure 5 shows a bar chart of the estimated PPVs for these groups. These investigators found that five times as many cancers per 1000 first-screening mammographic examinations were diagnosed in women aged 50 years or older compared with women aged less than 50 years. The highest PPVs for mammography were older women with a family history of breast cancer. This finding guided their recommendation.


Screening tests: a review with examples.

Maxim LD, Niebo R, Utell MJ - Inhal Toxicol (2014)

Positive predictive value from mammography for women in various age groups with and without a family history of cancer according to data provided in Kerlikowske et al. (1993).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389712&req=5

Figure 5: Positive predictive value from mammography for women in various age groups with and without a family history of cancer according to data provided in Kerlikowske et al. (1993).
Mentions: To illustrate the selection of a relevant population subgroup, we use an example from a study of breast cancer screening. Kerlikowske et al. (1993) reported on a cross-sectional study of 31 814 women aged 30 years and older referred for mammography at the University of California. They segmented the population into women of various age groups with and without a family history of breast cancer. Figure 5 shows a bar chart of the estimated PPVs for these groups. These investigators found that five times as many cancers per 1000 first-screening mammographic examinations were diagnosed in women aged 50 years or older compared with women aged less than 50 years. The highest PPVs for mammography were older women with a family history of breast cancer. This finding guided their recommendation.

Bottom Line: This article presents an overview of such tests including the definitions of key technical (sensitivity and specificity) and population characteristics necessary to assess the benefits and limitations of such tests.The importance of careful consideration of the consequences of both false positives and negatives is highlighted.Receiver operating characteristic curves are explained as is the need to carefully select the population group to be tested.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Everest Consulting Associates , Cranbury, NJ , USA and.

ABSTRACT
Screening tests are widely used in medicine to assess the likelihood that members of a defined population have a particular disease. This article presents an overview of such tests including the definitions of key technical (sensitivity and specificity) and population characteristics necessary to assess the benefits and limitations of such tests. Several examples are used to illustrate calculations, including the characteristics of low dose computed tomography as a lung cancer screen, choice of an optimal PSA cutoff and selection of the population to undergo mammography. The importance of careful consideration of the consequences of both false positives and negatives is highlighted. Receiver operating characteristic curves are explained as is the need to carefully select the population group to be tested.

Show MeSH