Limits...
The mechanism by which moderate alcohol consumption influences coronary heart disease.

Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH - Nutr J (2015)

Bottom Line: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease (CHD).The resulting integrated system now provides insight into the integrated higher-order interactions underlying CHD and moderate alcohol consumption.Thus, the possible reasons for the reduced RR for CHD with moderate alcohol consumption become clear at a glance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CRCED, North-West University, and Consultants to TEMM International (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 11207, Silver Lakes, 0054, South Africa. mjmathews@rems2.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). A suitably integrated view of the CHD pathogenesis pathway will help to elucidate how moderate alcohol consumption could reduce CHD risk.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the pathogenesis of CHD. Biomarker data were further systematically analysed from 294 cohort studies, comprising 1 161 560 subjects. From the above a suitably integrated CHD pathogenetic system for the purpose of this study was developed.

Results: The resulting integrated system now provides insight into the integrated higher-order interactions underlying CHD and moderate alcohol consumption. A novel 'connection graph' further simplifies these interactions by illustrating the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and the relative risks (RR) attributed to various measureable CHD serological biomarkers. Thus, the possible reasons for the reduced RR for CHD with moderate alcohol consumption become clear at a glance.

Conclusions: An integrated high-level model of CHD, its pathogenesis, biomarkers, and moderate alcohol consumption provides a summary of the evidence that a causal relationship between CHD risk and moderate alcohol consumption may exist. It also shows the importance of each CHD pathway that moderate alcohol consumption influences.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Interconnection of relative risk effects of moderate alcohol consumption and serological biomarkers for CHD. “ACR” denotes, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; Trop, troponins; Fibrin, fibrinogen; MPO, myeloperoxidase; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; Cysteine, Homocysteine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Trigl, triglycerides; ApoB, Apolipoprotein-B; Adipon, adiponectin; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin A1c; Cort, cortisol; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389579&req=5

Fig3: Interconnection of relative risk effects of moderate alcohol consumption and serological biomarkers for CHD. “ACR” denotes, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; Trop, troponins; Fibrin, fibrinogen; MPO, myeloperoxidase; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; Cysteine, Homocysteine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Trigl, triglycerides; ApoB, Apolipoprotein-B; Adipon, adiponectin; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin A1c; Cort, cortisol; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin.

Mentions: By combining the array of biomarker risks and the pathogenetic pathways elucidated from Figure 2 a connection graph which displays the pathogenetic connections between moderate alcohol consumption and CHD biomarker risk was developed. The pathogenetic pathways (from Figure 1), which are elucidated by the associated biomarker, are superimposed on the connecting lines in Figure 3. Increasing line thickness indicates a connection with greater pathogenetic effect (as quantified by biomarker risk prediction of CHD). For example, the risk of CHD is relatively low when considering adiponectin, thus the connection line between moderate alcohol consumption and adiponectin is thin.Figure 3


The mechanism by which moderate alcohol consumption influences coronary heart disease.

Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH - Nutr J (2015)

Interconnection of relative risk effects of moderate alcohol consumption and serological biomarkers for CHD. “ACR” denotes, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; Trop, troponins; Fibrin, fibrinogen; MPO, myeloperoxidase; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; Cysteine, Homocysteine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Trigl, triglycerides; ApoB, Apolipoprotein-B; Adipon, adiponectin; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin A1c; Cort, cortisol; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389579&req=5

Fig3: Interconnection of relative risk effects of moderate alcohol consumption and serological biomarkers for CHD. “ACR” denotes, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; Trop, troponins; Fibrin, fibrinogen; MPO, myeloperoxidase; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; Cysteine, Homocysteine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; Trigl, triglycerides; ApoB, Apolipoprotein-B; Adipon, adiponectin; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin A1c; Cort, cortisol; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin.
Mentions: By combining the array of biomarker risks and the pathogenetic pathways elucidated from Figure 2 a connection graph which displays the pathogenetic connections between moderate alcohol consumption and CHD biomarker risk was developed. The pathogenetic pathways (from Figure 1), which are elucidated by the associated biomarker, are superimposed on the connecting lines in Figure 3. Increasing line thickness indicates a connection with greater pathogenetic effect (as quantified by biomarker risk prediction of CHD). For example, the risk of CHD is relatively low when considering adiponectin, thus the connection line between moderate alcohol consumption and adiponectin is thin.Figure 3

Bottom Line: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease (CHD).The resulting integrated system now provides insight into the integrated higher-order interactions underlying CHD and moderate alcohol consumption.Thus, the possible reasons for the reduced RR for CHD with moderate alcohol consumption become clear at a glance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CRCED, North-West University, and Consultants to TEMM International (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 11207, Silver Lakes, 0054, South Africa. mjmathews@rems2.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). A suitably integrated view of the CHD pathogenesis pathway will help to elucidate how moderate alcohol consumption could reduce CHD risk.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the pathogenesis of CHD. Biomarker data were further systematically analysed from 294 cohort studies, comprising 1 161 560 subjects. From the above a suitably integrated CHD pathogenetic system for the purpose of this study was developed.

Results: The resulting integrated system now provides insight into the integrated higher-order interactions underlying CHD and moderate alcohol consumption. A novel 'connection graph' further simplifies these interactions by illustrating the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and the relative risks (RR) attributed to various measureable CHD serological biomarkers. Thus, the possible reasons for the reduced RR for CHD with moderate alcohol consumption become clear at a glance.

Conclusions: An integrated high-level model of CHD, its pathogenesis, biomarkers, and moderate alcohol consumption provides a summary of the evidence that a causal relationship between CHD risk and moderate alcohol consumption may exist. It also shows the importance of each CHD pathway that moderate alcohol consumption influences.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus