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The mechanism by which moderate alcohol consumption influences coronary heart disease.

Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH - Nutr J (2015)

Bottom Line: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease (CHD).The resulting integrated system now provides insight into the integrated higher-order interactions underlying CHD and moderate alcohol consumption.Thus, the possible reasons for the reduced RR for CHD with moderate alcohol consumption become clear at a glance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CRCED, North-West University, and Consultants to TEMM International (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 11207, Silver Lakes, 0054, South Africa. mjmathews@rems2.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). A suitably integrated view of the CHD pathogenesis pathway will help to elucidate how moderate alcohol consumption could reduce CHD risk.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the pathogenesis of CHD. Biomarker data were further systematically analysed from 294 cohort studies, comprising 1 161 560 subjects. From the above a suitably integrated CHD pathogenetic system for the purpose of this study was developed.

Results: The resulting integrated system now provides insight into the integrated higher-order interactions underlying CHD and moderate alcohol consumption. A novel 'connection graph' further simplifies these interactions by illustrating the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and the relative risks (RR) attributed to various measureable CHD serological biomarkers. Thus, the possible reasons for the reduced RR for CHD with moderate alcohol consumption become clear at a glance.

Conclusions: An integrated high-level model of CHD, its pathogenesis, biomarkers, and moderate alcohol consumption provides a summary of the evidence that a causal relationship between CHD risk and moderate alcohol consumption may exist. It also shows the importance of each CHD pathway that moderate alcohol consumption influences.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Normalised relative risks (fold-change) of salient current biomarkers or of potential serological biomarkers for CHD. From “How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?” by Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH. Nutr Metab.2015:12:6 [14] Increased IGF-1 and HDL levels are associated with a moderately decreased CHD risk. (IGF-1and HDL levels are significantly inversely correlated to relative risk for CHD.) N indicates number of trials; I, standard error; Adipo, adiponectin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; Cysteine, Homocysteine; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin A1c; Trop, troponins; Trigl, triglycerides; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; Fibrin, fibrinogen; Cort, cortisol; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; ApoB, apolipoprotein-B; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; MPO, myeloperoxidase; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment.
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Fig2: Normalised relative risks (fold-change) of salient current biomarkers or of potential serological biomarkers for CHD. From “How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?” by Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH. Nutr Metab.2015:12:6 [14] Increased IGF-1 and HDL levels are associated with a moderately decreased CHD risk. (IGF-1and HDL levels are significantly inversely correlated to relative risk for CHD.) N indicates number of trials; I, standard error; Adipo, adiponectin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; Cysteine, Homocysteine; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin A1c; Trop, troponins; Trigl, triglycerides; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; Fibrin, fibrinogen; Cort, cortisol; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; ApoB, apolipoprotein-B; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; MPO, myeloperoxidase; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment.

Mentions: A published study where all the important serum biomarkers were compared to show their relative importance regarding CHD risk prediction could not be found. This was therefore attempted in Table 3 with the corresponding results in Figure 2.Table 3


The mechanism by which moderate alcohol consumption influences coronary heart disease.

Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH - Nutr J (2015)

Normalised relative risks (fold-change) of salient current biomarkers or of potential serological biomarkers for CHD. From “How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?” by Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH. Nutr Metab.2015:12:6 [14] Increased IGF-1 and HDL levels are associated with a moderately decreased CHD risk. (IGF-1and HDL levels are significantly inversely correlated to relative risk for CHD.) N indicates number of trials; I, standard error; Adipo, adiponectin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; Cysteine, Homocysteine; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin A1c; Trop, troponins; Trigl, triglycerides; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; Fibrin, fibrinogen; Cort, cortisol; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; ApoB, apolipoprotein-B; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; MPO, myeloperoxidase; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389579&req=5

Fig2: Normalised relative risks (fold-change) of salient current biomarkers or of potential serological biomarkers for CHD. From “How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?” by Mathews MJ, Liebenberg L, Mathews EH. Nutr Metab.2015:12:6 [14] Increased IGF-1 and HDL levels are associated with a moderately decreased CHD risk. (IGF-1and HDL levels are significantly inversely correlated to relative risk for CHD.) N indicates number of trials; I, standard error; Adipo, adiponectin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; Cysteine, Homocysteine; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin A1c; Trop, troponins; Trigl, triglycerides; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; Fibrin, fibrinogen; Cort, cortisol; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; ApoB, apolipoprotein-B; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; MPO, myeloperoxidase; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment.
Mentions: A published study where all the important serum biomarkers were compared to show their relative importance regarding CHD risk prediction could not be found. This was therefore attempted in Table 3 with the corresponding results in Figure 2.Table 3

Bottom Line: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease (CHD).The resulting integrated system now provides insight into the integrated higher-order interactions underlying CHD and moderate alcohol consumption.Thus, the possible reasons for the reduced RR for CHD with moderate alcohol consumption become clear at a glance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CRCED, North-West University, and Consultants to TEMM International (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 11207, Silver Lakes, 0054, South Africa. mjmathews@rems2.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). A suitably integrated view of the CHD pathogenesis pathway will help to elucidate how moderate alcohol consumption could reduce CHD risk.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the pathogenesis of CHD. Biomarker data were further systematically analysed from 294 cohort studies, comprising 1 161 560 subjects. From the above a suitably integrated CHD pathogenetic system for the purpose of this study was developed.

Results: The resulting integrated system now provides insight into the integrated higher-order interactions underlying CHD and moderate alcohol consumption. A novel 'connection graph' further simplifies these interactions by illustrating the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and the relative risks (RR) attributed to various measureable CHD serological biomarkers. Thus, the possible reasons for the reduced RR for CHD with moderate alcohol consumption become clear at a glance.

Conclusions: An integrated high-level model of CHD, its pathogenesis, biomarkers, and moderate alcohol consumption provides a summary of the evidence that a causal relationship between CHD risk and moderate alcohol consumption may exist. It also shows the importance of each CHD pathway that moderate alcohol consumption influences.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus