Limits...
Diffusion tensor imaging of the human cerebellar pathways and their interplay with cerebral macrostructure.

Keser Z, Hasan KM, Mwangi BI, Kamali A, Ucisik-Keser FE, Riascos RF, Yozbatiran N, Francisco GE, Narayana PA - Front Neuroanat (2015)

Bottom Line: All cerebellar tract volumes were quantified and correlated with volumes of cerebral cortical, subcortical gray matter (GM), cerebral WM and cerebellar GM, and cerebellar WM.On our healthy cohort, the ratio of total cerebellar GM-to-WM was ~3.29 ± 0.24, whereas the ratio of cerebral GM-to-WM was approximately 1.10 ± 0.11.The sum of all cerebellar tract volumes is ~25.8 ± 7.3 mL, or a percentage of 1.6 ± 0.45 of the total intracranial volume (ICV).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and TIRR Memorial Hermann Neuro-Recovery Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center Houston Houston, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Cerebellar white matter (WM) connections to the central nervous system are classified functionally into the Spinocerebellar (SC), vestibulocerebellar (VC), and cerebrocerebellar subdivisions. The SC pathways project from spinal cord to cerebellum, whereas the VC pathways project from vestibular organs of the inner ear. Cerebrocerebellar connections are composed of feed forward and feedback connections between cerebrum and cerebellum including the cortico-ponto-cerebellar (CPC) pathways being of cortical origin and the dentate-rubro-thalamo-cortical (DRTC) pathway being of cerebellar origin. In this study we systematically quantified the whole cerebellar system connections using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). Ten right-handed healthy subjects (7 males and 3 females, age range 20-51 years) were studied. DT-MRI data were acquired with a voxel size = 2 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm at a 3.0 Tesla clinical MRI scanner. The DT-MRI data were prepared and analyzed using anatomically-guided deterministic tractography methods to reconstruct the SC, DRTC, fronto-ponto-cerebellar (FPC), parieto-ponto-cerebellar (PPC), temporo-ponto-cerebellar (TPC) and occipito-ponto-cerebellar (OPC). The DTI-attributes or the cerebellar tracts along with their cortical representation (Brodmann areas) were presented in standard Montréal Neurological Institute space. All cerebellar tract volumes were quantified and correlated with volumes of cerebral cortical, subcortical gray matter (GM), cerebral WM and cerebellar GM, and cerebellar WM. On our healthy cohort, the ratio of total cerebellar GM-to-WM was ~3.29 ± 0.24, whereas the ratio of cerebral GM-to-WM was approximately 1.10 ± 0.11. The sum of all cerebellar tract volumes is ~25.8 ± 7.3 mL, or a percentage of 1.6 ± 0.45 of the total intracranial volume (ICV).

No MeSH data available.


Schematic Representation of (A) deep cerebellar nuclei on axial T1w, (B) cerebellar peduncles on sagittal, (C) relevant structures on coronal T1w and (D) cerebellocerebral loop pathways are shown. Abbreviations: CH: Cerebellar Hemisphere, CPC: Cortico-Ponto-Cerebellar Pathways, DN: Dentate Nucleus, DRTC: Dentate-Rubro-Thalamo-Cortical Pathways, ICP: Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle, LV: Lateral Ventricles, MCP: Middle Cerebellar Peduncle, RN: Red Nucleus, SCP: Superior Cerebellar Peducles Tha: Thalamus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389543&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic Representation of (A) deep cerebellar nuclei on axial T1w, (B) cerebellar peduncles on sagittal, (C) relevant structures on coronal T1w and (D) cerebellocerebral loop pathways are shown. Abbreviations: CH: Cerebellar Hemisphere, CPC: Cortico-Ponto-Cerebellar Pathways, DN: Dentate Nucleus, DRTC: Dentate-Rubro-Thalamo-Cortical Pathways, ICP: Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle, LV: Lateral Ventricles, MCP: Middle Cerebellar Peduncle, RN: Red Nucleus, SCP: Superior Cerebellar Peducles Tha: Thalamus.

Mentions: The best known functional role of the cerebellum is the integration of sensory and motor functions of the brain during coordination of fine movements along with its roles in cognitive, emotional and language functions. The cerebellar connections are functionally divided into the vestibulocerebellar (VC), SC and cerebrocerebellar connections (see Figure 1; Mendoza and Foundas, 2007).The SC pathways project from spinal cord to cerebellum and play a role in relaying non-conscious proprioceptive/kinesthetic information from the muscle spindles and tendons, and non-conscious cutaneous feedback (e.g., pressure, touch and pain). The VC connections are the fibers originating from the vestibular organs of the inner ear and project to the brainstem and eventually to cerebellum which maintains balance and equilibrium of the body (Snell, 2009). The cerebrocerebellar connections are composed of feed-forward and feed-backward connections between cerebrum and cerebellum and considered as a loop (Habas and Cabanis, 2007a; Catani and Thiebaut de Schotten, 2012; Koziol et al., 2014). Corticopontocerebellar (CPC) pathways (Kamali et al., 2010; Buckner et al., 2011) of cortical origin and dentate-rubro-thalamo-cortical (DRTC) pathway of cerebellar origin, are responsible for fine-tuning the execution of voluntary movement and motor planning together with the high order cognitive, visual and auditory functions (Habas and Cabanis, 2007b; Blumenfeld, 2011).


Diffusion tensor imaging of the human cerebellar pathways and their interplay with cerebral macrostructure.

Keser Z, Hasan KM, Mwangi BI, Kamali A, Ucisik-Keser FE, Riascos RF, Yozbatiran N, Francisco GE, Narayana PA - Front Neuroanat (2015)

Schematic Representation of (A) deep cerebellar nuclei on axial T1w, (B) cerebellar peduncles on sagittal, (C) relevant structures on coronal T1w and (D) cerebellocerebral loop pathways are shown. Abbreviations: CH: Cerebellar Hemisphere, CPC: Cortico-Ponto-Cerebellar Pathways, DN: Dentate Nucleus, DRTC: Dentate-Rubro-Thalamo-Cortical Pathways, ICP: Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle, LV: Lateral Ventricles, MCP: Middle Cerebellar Peduncle, RN: Red Nucleus, SCP: Superior Cerebellar Peducles Tha: Thalamus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389543&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic Representation of (A) deep cerebellar nuclei on axial T1w, (B) cerebellar peduncles on sagittal, (C) relevant structures on coronal T1w and (D) cerebellocerebral loop pathways are shown. Abbreviations: CH: Cerebellar Hemisphere, CPC: Cortico-Ponto-Cerebellar Pathways, DN: Dentate Nucleus, DRTC: Dentate-Rubro-Thalamo-Cortical Pathways, ICP: Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle, LV: Lateral Ventricles, MCP: Middle Cerebellar Peduncle, RN: Red Nucleus, SCP: Superior Cerebellar Peducles Tha: Thalamus.
Mentions: The best known functional role of the cerebellum is the integration of sensory and motor functions of the brain during coordination of fine movements along with its roles in cognitive, emotional and language functions. The cerebellar connections are functionally divided into the vestibulocerebellar (VC), SC and cerebrocerebellar connections (see Figure 1; Mendoza and Foundas, 2007).The SC pathways project from spinal cord to cerebellum and play a role in relaying non-conscious proprioceptive/kinesthetic information from the muscle spindles and tendons, and non-conscious cutaneous feedback (e.g., pressure, touch and pain). The VC connections are the fibers originating from the vestibular organs of the inner ear and project to the brainstem and eventually to cerebellum which maintains balance and equilibrium of the body (Snell, 2009). The cerebrocerebellar connections are composed of feed-forward and feed-backward connections between cerebrum and cerebellum and considered as a loop (Habas and Cabanis, 2007a; Catani and Thiebaut de Schotten, 2012; Koziol et al., 2014). Corticopontocerebellar (CPC) pathways (Kamali et al., 2010; Buckner et al., 2011) of cortical origin and dentate-rubro-thalamo-cortical (DRTC) pathway of cerebellar origin, are responsible for fine-tuning the execution of voluntary movement and motor planning together with the high order cognitive, visual and auditory functions (Habas and Cabanis, 2007b; Blumenfeld, 2011).

Bottom Line: All cerebellar tract volumes were quantified and correlated with volumes of cerebral cortical, subcortical gray matter (GM), cerebral WM and cerebellar GM, and cerebellar WM.On our healthy cohort, the ratio of total cerebellar GM-to-WM was ~3.29 ± 0.24, whereas the ratio of cerebral GM-to-WM was approximately 1.10 ± 0.11.The sum of all cerebellar tract volumes is ~25.8 ± 7.3 mL, or a percentage of 1.6 ± 0.45 of the total intracranial volume (ICV).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and TIRR Memorial Hermann Neuro-Recovery Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center Houston Houston, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Cerebellar white matter (WM) connections to the central nervous system are classified functionally into the Spinocerebellar (SC), vestibulocerebellar (VC), and cerebrocerebellar subdivisions. The SC pathways project from spinal cord to cerebellum, whereas the VC pathways project from vestibular organs of the inner ear. Cerebrocerebellar connections are composed of feed forward and feedback connections between cerebrum and cerebellum including the cortico-ponto-cerebellar (CPC) pathways being of cortical origin and the dentate-rubro-thalamo-cortical (DRTC) pathway being of cerebellar origin. In this study we systematically quantified the whole cerebellar system connections using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). Ten right-handed healthy subjects (7 males and 3 females, age range 20-51 years) were studied. DT-MRI data were acquired with a voxel size = 2 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm at a 3.0 Tesla clinical MRI scanner. The DT-MRI data were prepared and analyzed using anatomically-guided deterministic tractography methods to reconstruct the SC, DRTC, fronto-ponto-cerebellar (FPC), parieto-ponto-cerebellar (PPC), temporo-ponto-cerebellar (TPC) and occipito-ponto-cerebellar (OPC). The DTI-attributes or the cerebellar tracts along with their cortical representation (Brodmann areas) were presented in standard Montréal Neurological Institute space. All cerebellar tract volumes were quantified and correlated with volumes of cerebral cortical, subcortical gray matter (GM), cerebral WM and cerebellar GM, and cerebellar WM. On our healthy cohort, the ratio of total cerebellar GM-to-WM was ~3.29 ± 0.24, whereas the ratio of cerebral GM-to-WM was approximately 1.10 ± 0.11. The sum of all cerebellar tract volumes is ~25.8 ± 7.3 mL, or a percentage of 1.6 ± 0.45 of the total intracranial volume (ICV).

No MeSH data available.