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Microbial resource utilization traits and trade-offs: implications for community structure, functioning, and biogeochemical impacts at present and in the future.

Litchman E, Edwards KF, Klausmeier CA - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Several important trade-offs have been identified for prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial taxa that define contrasting ecological strategies and contribute to species coexistence and diversity.The shape, dimensionality, and hierarchy of trade-offs may determine coexistence patterns and need to be better characterized.Global environmental change can alter microbial community composition through altering resource utilization by different microbes and, consequently, may modify biogeochemical impacts of microbes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: W.K. Kellogg Biological Station - Michigan State University Hickory Corners, MI, USA ; Department of Integrative Biology, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Trait-based approaches provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict the structure and functioning of microbial communities. Resource utilization traits and trade-offs are among key microbial traits that describe population dynamics and competition among microbes. Several important trade-offs have been identified for prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial taxa that define contrasting ecological strategies and contribute to species coexistence and diversity. The shape, dimensionality, and hierarchy of trade-offs may determine coexistence patterns and need to be better characterized. Laboratory measured resource utilization traits can be used to explain temporal and spatial structure and dynamics of natural microbial communities and predict biogeochemical impacts. Global environmental change can alter microbial community composition through altering resource utilization by different microbes and, consequently, may modify biogeochemical impacts of microbes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A hypothetical example of how resource acquisition trade-offs interact with environmental conditions to determine community structure, with biogeochemical consequences. Monod growth curves are plotted for four species that exhibit an ‘opportunist-gleaner’ trade-off, where high maximum growth rate comes at a cost of reduced affinity. If nutrient supply shifts from relatively constant to highly variable, this shifts the relative fitness of the different strategies, with different species dominating under different conditions. Shifts in community composition may have biogeochemical impacts, such as reduced biomass N:P when opportunists dominate (growth rate hypothesis), or increased phytoplankton cell size (smaller cells tend to have higher affinity). A further possibility is that multiple strategies may coexist under variable nutrient supply, which is not depicted in the diagram.
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Figure 2: A hypothetical example of how resource acquisition trade-offs interact with environmental conditions to determine community structure, with biogeochemical consequences. Monod growth curves are plotted for four species that exhibit an ‘opportunist-gleaner’ trade-off, where high maximum growth rate comes at a cost of reduced affinity. If nutrient supply shifts from relatively constant to highly variable, this shifts the relative fitness of the different strategies, with different species dominating under different conditions. Shifts in community composition may have biogeochemical impacts, such as reduced biomass N:P when opportunists dominate (growth rate hypothesis), or increased phytoplankton cell size (smaller cells tend to have higher affinity). A further possibility is that multiple strategies may coexist under variable nutrient supply, which is not depicted in the diagram.

Mentions: Pairwise and higher-dimensional trade-offs in resource utilization traits can lead to coexistence of many competitors and thus generate significant microbial diversity. Fluctuating resource conditions, spatial heterogeneity, predators, and parasites (e.g., phages and grazers) select different species based on a diverse set of trade-offs and can promote coexistence (Figure 2). Moreover, resource utilization trade-offs can lead to an evolutionary diversification of social strategies, depending on environmental conditions (Kreft and Bonhoeffer, 2005). The knowledge of trade-offs and other relationships among traits can also help infer missing traits for individual microbes (Edwards et al., 2011). As we do not have a good understanding of the nature, dimensionality, or the shapes of many potential trade-offs, a better characterization of such trade-offs is important for getting at the mechanisms of community assembly and diversity.


Microbial resource utilization traits and trade-offs: implications for community structure, functioning, and biogeochemical impacts at present and in the future.

Litchman E, Edwards KF, Klausmeier CA - Front Microbiol (2015)

A hypothetical example of how resource acquisition trade-offs interact with environmental conditions to determine community structure, with biogeochemical consequences. Monod growth curves are plotted for four species that exhibit an ‘opportunist-gleaner’ trade-off, where high maximum growth rate comes at a cost of reduced affinity. If nutrient supply shifts from relatively constant to highly variable, this shifts the relative fitness of the different strategies, with different species dominating under different conditions. Shifts in community composition may have biogeochemical impacts, such as reduced biomass N:P when opportunists dominate (growth rate hypothesis), or increased phytoplankton cell size (smaller cells tend to have higher affinity). A further possibility is that multiple strategies may coexist under variable nutrient supply, which is not depicted in the diagram.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389539&req=5

Figure 2: A hypothetical example of how resource acquisition trade-offs interact with environmental conditions to determine community structure, with biogeochemical consequences. Monod growth curves are plotted for four species that exhibit an ‘opportunist-gleaner’ trade-off, where high maximum growth rate comes at a cost of reduced affinity. If nutrient supply shifts from relatively constant to highly variable, this shifts the relative fitness of the different strategies, with different species dominating under different conditions. Shifts in community composition may have biogeochemical impacts, such as reduced biomass N:P when opportunists dominate (growth rate hypothesis), or increased phytoplankton cell size (smaller cells tend to have higher affinity). A further possibility is that multiple strategies may coexist under variable nutrient supply, which is not depicted in the diagram.
Mentions: Pairwise and higher-dimensional trade-offs in resource utilization traits can lead to coexistence of many competitors and thus generate significant microbial diversity. Fluctuating resource conditions, spatial heterogeneity, predators, and parasites (e.g., phages and grazers) select different species based on a diverse set of trade-offs and can promote coexistence (Figure 2). Moreover, resource utilization trade-offs can lead to an evolutionary diversification of social strategies, depending on environmental conditions (Kreft and Bonhoeffer, 2005). The knowledge of trade-offs and other relationships among traits can also help infer missing traits for individual microbes (Edwards et al., 2011). As we do not have a good understanding of the nature, dimensionality, or the shapes of many potential trade-offs, a better characterization of such trade-offs is important for getting at the mechanisms of community assembly and diversity.

Bottom Line: Several important trade-offs have been identified for prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial taxa that define contrasting ecological strategies and contribute to species coexistence and diversity.The shape, dimensionality, and hierarchy of trade-offs may determine coexistence patterns and need to be better characterized.Global environmental change can alter microbial community composition through altering resource utilization by different microbes and, consequently, may modify biogeochemical impacts of microbes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: W.K. Kellogg Biological Station - Michigan State University Hickory Corners, MI, USA ; Department of Integrative Biology, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA.

ABSTRACT
Trait-based approaches provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict the structure and functioning of microbial communities. Resource utilization traits and trade-offs are among key microbial traits that describe population dynamics and competition among microbes. Several important trade-offs have been identified for prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial taxa that define contrasting ecological strategies and contribute to species coexistence and diversity. The shape, dimensionality, and hierarchy of trade-offs may determine coexistence patterns and need to be better characterized. Laboratory measured resource utilization traits can be used to explain temporal and spatial structure and dynamics of natural microbial communities and predict biogeochemical impacts. Global environmental change can alter microbial community composition through altering resource utilization by different microbes and, consequently, may modify biogeochemical impacts of microbes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus