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Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised.

Evora PR, Alves Junior L, Ferreira CA, Menardi AC, Bassetto S, Rodrigues AJ, Scorzoni Filho A, Vicente WV - Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc (2015 Jan-Mar)

Bottom Line: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1) MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg); 2) MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3) The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4) MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5) The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6) There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness.In the last five years, major challenges were: 1) Observations about side effects; 2) The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3) The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans.This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery.

Methods: A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE.

Results: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1) MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg); 2) MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3) The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4) MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5) The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6) There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1) Observations about side effects; 2) The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3) The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans.

Conclusion: MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Published items and citations per year
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f01: Published items and citations per year

Mentions: Concerning the number of publications, there are about 70 publications, showing anincreasing trend in the number of publications and citations (Figure 1).


Twenty years of vasoplegic syndrome treatment in heart surgery. Methylene blue revised.

Evora PR, Alves Junior L, Ferreira CA, Menardi AC, Bassetto S, Rodrigues AJ, Scorzoni Filho A, Vicente WV - Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc (2015 Jan-Mar)

Published items and citations per year
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4389523&req=5

f01: Published items and citations per year
Mentions: Concerning the number of publications, there are about 70 publications, showing anincreasing trend in the number of publications and citations (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1) MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg); 2) MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3) The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4) MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5) The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6) There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness.In the last five years, major challenges were: 1) Observations about side effects; 2) The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3) The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans.This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgery and Anatomy, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study was conducted to reassess the concepts established over the past 20 years, in particular in the last 5 years, about the use of methylene blue in the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome in cardiac surgery.

Methods: A wide literature review was carried out using the data extracted from: MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI WEB OF SCIENCE.

Results: The reassessed and reaffirmed concepts were 1) MB is safe in the recommended doses (the lethal dose is 40 mg/kg); 2) MB does not cause endothelial dysfunction; 3) The MB effect appears in cases of NO up-regulation; 4) MB is not a vasoconstrictor, by blocking the cGMP pathway it releases the cAMP pathway, facilitating the norepinephrine vasoconstrictor effect; 5) The most used dosage is 2 mg/kg as IV bolus, followed by the same continuous infusion because plasma concentrations sharply decrease in the first 40 minutes; and 6) There is a possible "window of opportunity" for MB's effectiveness. In the last five years, major challenges were: 1) Observations about side effects; 2) The need for prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines, and; 3) The need for the establishment of the MB therapeutic window in humans.

Conclusion: MB action to treat vasoplegic syndrome is time-dependent. Therefore, the great challenge is the need, for the establishment the MB therapeutic window in humans. This would be the first step towards a systematic guideline to be followed by possible multicenter studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus