Parental, prenatal, and neonatal associations with ball skills at age 8 using an exposome approach.
Bottom Line: The offspring of parents who described themselves as having poor eyesight had poorer ability.This hypothesis-free approach has identified a strong negative association with an unhappy childhood.Future studies of this cohort will be used to determine whether the mechanism is manifest through differing parenting skills, or a biological mechanism reflecting epigenetic effects.
Affiliation: Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, School of Social & Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom email@example.com.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Coordination Test was derived from subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (the Movement ABC or MABC)9 and used when the children were approximately 7½ years of age. It was carried out in rooms adapted for the study and conducted by trained examiners from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Parents accompanied children but were not allowed to help them. From the ball skills section of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, the bean bag subtest was conducted. This involved the child attempting to throw a bean bag (underarm) into a box, while standing behind a line at a distance of 6 feet from the box. During the demonstration and explanation, the tester emphasized to the child that he or she should use only one-handed, underarm throws and remain behind the line for each throw, standing in a good position for throwing. The children were given 5 practice throws where they were able to change hands but were encouraged to choose their preferred hand for the main trial. Any procedural errors made during the practice were corrected and the children were reminded of, or redemonstrated, the correct procedure. Out of 10 throws, the number to successfully land in the box was recorded. The resulting data were approximately normally distributed (Figure 1) and had a mean of 5.82 and standard deviation 2.08.
Affiliation: Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, School of Social & Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom firstname.lastname@example.org.