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Mitogen-activated protein kinases are associated with the regulation of physiological traits and virulence in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

Ding Z, Li M, Sun F, Xi P, Sun L, Zhang L, Jiang Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Transcriptional analysis revealed that the MAP kinase signaling pathway plays a key role in regulation of the genes encoding production of chitin, peroxidase, beauvericin and fusaric acid.Moreover, disruption of the MAP kinase genes resulted in abnormal hypha and increased sensitivity to Congo Red, Calcofluor White and H2O2.Taken together, these results depict the critical roles of MAP kinases in regulation of FOC physiology and virulence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Pathology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Microbial Signals and Disease Control, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

ABSTRACT
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) is an important soil-borne fungal pathogen causing devastating vascular wilt disease of banana plants and has become a great concern threatening banana production worldwide. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the expression of virulence determinants of this important fungal pathogen. In this study, we showed that mutation of three mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase genes, designated as FoSlt2, FoMkk2 and FoBck1, respectively, led to substantial attenuation in fungal virulence on banana plants. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the MAP kinase signaling pathway plays a key role in regulation of the genes encoding production of chitin, peroxidase, beauvericin and fusaric acid. Biochemical analysis further confirmed the essential role of MAP kinases in modulating the production of fusaric acid, which was a crucial phytotoxin in accelerating development of Fusarium wilt symptoms in banana plants. Additionally, we found that the MAP kinase FoSlt2 was required for siderophore biosynthesis under iron-depletion conditions. Moreover, disruption of the MAP kinase genes resulted in abnormal hypha and increased sensitivity to Congo Red, Calcofluor White and H2O2. Taken together, these results depict the critical roles of MAP kinases in regulation of FOC physiology and virulence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Virulence assay of WT, mutants ホ認oSlt2, ホ認oMkk2 and ホ認oBck1, and complemented strains ホ認oSlt2-c and ホ認oMkk2-c.(A) Disease symptom on corms of banana tissue plants were assayed after 40 days of inoculation with indicated strains and water as negative control. (B) Disease incidence and disease index indicated disease severity. Error bars indicate the standard error from three replicates.
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pone.0122634.g009: Virulence assay of WT, mutants ホ認oSlt2, ホ認oMkk2 and ホ認oBck1, and complemented strains ホ認oSlt2-c and ホ認oMkk2-c.(A) Disease symptom on corms of banana tissue plants were assayed after 40 days of inoculation with indicated strains and water as negative control. (B) Disease incidence and disease index indicated disease severity. Error bars indicate the standard error from three replicates.

Mentions: Virulence tests showed that the mutants ホ認oSlt2, ホ認oMkk2 and ホ認oBck1 were unable to produce visible vascular discoloration in the corm of the banana plantlets (Fig 9A) and were significantly reduced in virulence on Cavendish banana compared to the WT according to disease incidence and disease index (Fig 9B), while the complemented strains ホ認oSlt2-c and ホ認oMkk2-c produced obvious internal disease symptoms of brown discoloration (Fig 9A) with virulence restored to the WT level (Fig 9B). These results indicate that MAP kinases are required for the full virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense.


Mitogen-activated protein kinases are associated with the regulation of physiological traits and virulence in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

Ding Z, Li M, Sun F, Xi P, Sun L, Zhang L, Jiang Z - PLoS ONE (2015)

Virulence assay of WT, mutants ホ認oSlt2, ホ認oMkk2 and ホ認oBck1, and complemented strains ホ認oSlt2-c and ホ認oMkk2-c.(A) Disease symptom on corms of banana tissue plants were assayed after 40 days of inoculation with indicated strains and water as negative control. (B) Disease incidence and disease index indicated disease severity. Error bars indicate the standard error from three replicates.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4388850&req=5

pone.0122634.g009: Virulence assay of WT, mutants ホ認oSlt2, ホ認oMkk2 and ホ認oBck1, and complemented strains ホ認oSlt2-c and ホ認oMkk2-c.(A) Disease symptom on corms of banana tissue plants were assayed after 40 days of inoculation with indicated strains and water as negative control. (B) Disease incidence and disease index indicated disease severity. Error bars indicate the standard error from three replicates.
Mentions: Virulence tests showed that the mutants ホ認oSlt2, ホ認oMkk2 and ホ認oBck1 were unable to produce visible vascular discoloration in the corm of the banana plantlets (Fig 9A) and were significantly reduced in virulence on Cavendish banana compared to the WT according to disease incidence and disease index (Fig 9B), while the complemented strains ホ認oSlt2-c and ホ認oMkk2-c produced obvious internal disease symptoms of brown discoloration (Fig 9A) with virulence restored to the WT level (Fig 9B). These results indicate that MAP kinases are required for the full virulence of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

Bottom Line: Transcriptional analysis revealed that the MAP kinase signaling pathway plays a key role in regulation of the genes encoding production of chitin, peroxidase, beauvericin and fusaric acid.Moreover, disruption of the MAP kinase genes resulted in abnormal hypha and increased sensitivity to Congo Red, Calcofluor White and H2O2.Taken together, these results depict the critical roles of MAP kinases in regulation of FOC physiology and virulence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Pathology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Microbial Signals and Disease Control, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

ABSTRACT
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) is an important soil-borne fungal pathogen causing devastating vascular wilt disease of banana plants and has become a great concern threatening banana production worldwide. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the expression of virulence determinants of this important fungal pathogen. In this study, we showed that mutation of three mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase genes, designated as FoSlt2, FoMkk2 and FoBck1, respectively, led to substantial attenuation in fungal virulence on banana plants. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the MAP kinase signaling pathway plays a key role in regulation of the genes encoding production of chitin, peroxidase, beauvericin and fusaric acid. Biochemical analysis further confirmed the essential role of MAP kinases in modulating the production of fusaric acid, which was a crucial phytotoxin in accelerating development of Fusarium wilt symptoms in banana plants. Additionally, we found that the MAP kinase FoSlt2 was required for siderophore biosynthesis under iron-depletion conditions. Moreover, disruption of the MAP kinase genes resulted in abnormal hypha and increased sensitivity to Congo Red, Calcofluor White and H2O2. Taken together, these results depict the critical roles of MAP kinases in regulation of FOC physiology and virulence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus