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Deep phylogenetic analysis of haplogroup G1 provides estimates of SNP and STR mutation rates on the human Y-chromosome and reveals migrations of Iranic speakers.

Balanovsky O, Zhabagin M, Agdzhoyan A, Chukhryaeva M, Zaporozhchenko V, Utevska O, Highnam G, Sabitov Z, Greenspan E, Dibirova K, Skhalyakho R, Kuznetsova M, Koshel S, Yusupov Y, Nymadawa P, Zhumadilov Z, Pocheshkhova E, Haber M, A Zalloua P, Yepiskoposyan L, Dybo A, Tyler-Smith C, Balanovska E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The haplotype diversity, which decreased from West Iran to Central Asia, allows us to hypothesize that this rare haplogroup could have been carried by the expansion of Iranic speakers northwards to the Eurasian steppe and via founder effects became a predominant genetic component of some populations, including the Argyn tribe of the Kazakhs.The mutation rate for Y-chromosomal STRs was 0.0022 per locus per generation, very close to the so-called genealogical rate.The "clan-based" approach to estimating the mutation rate provides a third, middle way between direct farther-to-son comparisons and using archeologically known migrations, whose dates are subject to revision and of uncertain relationship to genetic events.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

ABSTRACT
Y-chromosomal haplogroup G1 is a minor component of the overall gene pool of South-West and Central Asia but reaches up to 80% frequency in some populations scattered within this area. We have genotyped the G1-defining marker M285 in 27 Eurasian populations (n= 5,346), analyzed 367 M285-positive samples using 17 Y-STRs, and sequenced ~11 Mb of the Y-chromosome in 20 of these samples to an average coverage of 67X. This allowed detailed phylogenetic reconstruction. We identified five branches, all with high geographical specificity: G1-L1323 in Kazakhs, the closely related G1-GG1 in Mongols, G1-GG265 in Armenians and its distant brother clade G1-GG162 in Bashkirs, and G1-GG362 in West Indians. The haplotype diversity, which decreased from West Iran to Central Asia, allows us to hypothesize that this rare haplogroup could have been carried by the expansion of Iranic speakers northwards to the Eurasian steppe and via founder effects became a predominant genetic component of some populations, including the Argyn tribe of the Kazakhs. The remarkable agreement between genetic and genealogical trees of Argyns allowed us to calibrate the molecular clock using a historical date (1405 AD) of the most recent common genealogical ancestor. The mutation rate for Y-chromosomal sequence data obtained was 0.78×10-9 per bp per year, falling within the range of published rates. The mutation rate for Y-chromosomal STRs was 0.0022 per locus per generation, very close to the so-called genealogical rate. The "clan-based" approach to estimating the mutation rate provides a third, middle way between direct farther-to-son comparisons and using archeologically known migrations, whose dates are subject to revision and of uncertain relationship to genetic events.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Genetic and genealogical reconstructions of the relationship between members of the Argyn tribe of the Kazakh:A) Genetic tree reconstructed from Y-chromosome sequences of the Kazakh samples. B) Genealogical tree of the Argyn tribe of the Kazakh. Each sequenced Kazakh sample is attributed to the clan it originates from. The genealogical ancestor with the known historical date is marked in grey.
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pone.0122968.g006: Genetic and genealogical reconstructions of the relationship between members of the Argyn tribe of the Kazakh:A) Genetic tree reconstructed from Y-chromosome sequences of the Kazakh samples. B) Genealogical tree of the Argyn tribe of the Kazakh. Each sequenced Kazakh sample is attributed to the clan it originates from. The genealogical ancestor with the known historical date is marked in grey.

Mentions: The Argyn tribe in which haplogroup G1 predominates is believed to descend from a single male common ancestor (Argyn) and is divided into 12 clans (Fig 6B). Though there is no historical evidence for the existence of Argyn, who is known only from genealogical tradition, his great-grandson Karakhoja is a historical personality and is mentioned, among other sources, as ambassador of the Toshtamish khan—ruler of the Golden Horde—to Tamerlane in 1405. Most of the Argyn clans are believed to originate from Karakhoja (S4 Fig) and other clans are believed to originate from his brother Somdyk.


Deep phylogenetic analysis of haplogroup G1 provides estimates of SNP and STR mutation rates on the human Y-chromosome and reveals migrations of Iranic speakers.

Balanovsky O, Zhabagin M, Agdzhoyan A, Chukhryaeva M, Zaporozhchenko V, Utevska O, Highnam G, Sabitov Z, Greenspan E, Dibirova K, Skhalyakho R, Kuznetsova M, Koshel S, Yusupov Y, Nymadawa P, Zhumadilov Z, Pocheshkhova E, Haber M, A Zalloua P, Yepiskoposyan L, Dybo A, Tyler-Smith C, Balanovska E - PLoS ONE (2015)

Genetic and genealogical reconstructions of the relationship between members of the Argyn tribe of the Kazakh:A) Genetic tree reconstructed from Y-chromosome sequences of the Kazakh samples. B) Genealogical tree of the Argyn tribe of the Kazakh. Each sequenced Kazakh sample is attributed to the clan it originates from. The genealogical ancestor with the known historical date is marked in grey.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4388827&req=5

pone.0122968.g006: Genetic and genealogical reconstructions of the relationship between members of the Argyn tribe of the Kazakh:A) Genetic tree reconstructed from Y-chromosome sequences of the Kazakh samples. B) Genealogical tree of the Argyn tribe of the Kazakh. Each sequenced Kazakh sample is attributed to the clan it originates from. The genealogical ancestor with the known historical date is marked in grey.
Mentions: The Argyn tribe in which haplogroup G1 predominates is believed to descend from a single male common ancestor (Argyn) and is divided into 12 clans (Fig 6B). Though there is no historical evidence for the existence of Argyn, who is known only from genealogical tradition, his great-grandson Karakhoja is a historical personality and is mentioned, among other sources, as ambassador of the Toshtamish khan—ruler of the Golden Horde—to Tamerlane in 1405. Most of the Argyn clans are believed to originate from Karakhoja (S4 Fig) and other clans are believed to originate from his brother Somdyk.

Bottom Line: The haplotype diversity, which decreased from West Iran to Central Asia, allows us to hypothesize that this rare haplogroup could have been carried by the expansion of Iranic speakers northwards to the Eurasian steppe and via founder effects became a predominant genetic component of some populations, including the Argyn tribe of the Kazakhs.The mutation rate for Y-chromosomal STRs was 0.0022 per locus per generation, very close to the so-called genealogical rate.The "clan-based" approach to estimating the mutation rate provides a third, middle way between direct farther-to-son comparisons and using archeologically known migrations, whose dates are subject to revision and of uncertain relationship to genetic events.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

ABSTRACT
Y-chromosomal haplogroup G1 is a minor component of the overall gene pool of South-West and Central Asia but reaches up to 80% frequency in some populations scattered within this area. We have genotyped the G1-defining marker M285 in 27 Eurasian populations (n= 5,346), analyzed 367 M285-positive samples using 17 Y-STRs, and sequenced ~11 Mb of the Y-chromosome in 20 of these samples to an average coverage of 67X. This allowed detailed phylogenetic reconstruction. We identified five branches, all with high geographical specificity: G1-L1323 in Kazakhs, the closely related G1-GG1 in Mongols, G1-GG265 in Armenians and its distant brother clade G1-GG162 in Bashkirs, and G1-GG362 in West Indians. The haplotype diversity, which decreased from West Iran to Central Asia, allows us to hypothesize that this rare haplogroup could have been carried by the expansion of Iranic speakers northwards to the Eurasian steppe and via founder effects became a predominant genetic component of some populations, including the Argyn tribe of the Kazakhs. The remarkable agreement between genetic and genealogical trees of Argyns allowed us to calibrate the molecular clock using a historical date (1405 AD) of the most recent common genealogical ancestor. The mutation rate for Y-chromosomal sequence data obtained was 0.78×10-9 per bp per year, falling within the range of published rates. The mutation rate for Y-chromosomal STRs was 0.0022 per locus per generation, very close to the so-called genealogical rate. The "clan-based" approach to estimating the mutation rate provides a third, middle way between direct farther-to-son comparisons and using archeologically known migrations, whose dates are subject to revision and of uncertain relationship to genetic events.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus