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Geographic and temporal trends in the molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance: an individual-patient- and sequence-level meta-analysis.

Rhee SY, Blanco JL, Jordan MR, Taylor J, Lemey P, Varghese V, Hamers RL, Bertagnolio S, Rinke de Wit TF, Aghokeng AF, Albert J, Avi R, Avila-Rios S, Bessong PO, Brooks JI, Boucher CA, Brumme ZL, Busch MP, Bussmann H, Chaix ML, Chin BS, D'Aquin TT, De Gascun CF, Derache A, Descamps D, Deshpande AK, Djoko CF, Eshleman SH, Fleury H, Frange P, Fujisaki S, Harrigan PR, Hattori J, Holguin A, Hunt GM, Ichimura H, Kaleebu P, Katzenstein D, Kiertiburanakul S, Kim JH, Kim SS, Li Y, Lutsar I, Morris L, Ndembi N, Ng KP, Paranjape RS, Peeters M, Poljak M, Price MA, Ragonnet-Cronin ML, Reyes-Terán G, Rolland M, Sirivichayakul S, Smith DM, Soares MA, Soriano VV, Ssemwanga D, Stanojevic M, Stefani MA, Sugiura W, Sungkanuparph S, Tanuri A, Tee KK, Truong HH, van de Vijver DA, Vidal N, Yang C, Yang R, Yebra G, Ioannidis JP, Vandamme AM, Shafer RW - PLoS Med. (2015)

Bottom Line: Four NNRTI SDRMs—K101E, K103N, Y181C, and G190A—accounted for >80% of NNRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes.Sixteen nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs accounted for >69% of NRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes.Most TDR strains in SSA and SSEA arose independently, suggesting that ARV regimens with a high genetic barrier to resistance combined with improved patient adherence may mitigate TDR increases by reducing the generation of new ARV-resistant strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America. Leuven—University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Leuven, Belgium.

ABSTRACT

Background: Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and to identify the HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations responsible for TDR in different regions and virus subtypes.

Methods and findings: We reviewed all GenBank submissions of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences with or without protease and identified 287 studies published between March 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, with more than 25 recently or chronically infected ARV-naïve individuals. These studies comprised 50,870 individuals from 111 countries. Each set of study sequences was analyzed for phylogenetic clustering and the presence of 93 surveillance drug-resistance mutations (SDRMs). The median overall TDR prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), south/southeast Asia (SSEA), upper-income Asian countries, Latin America/Caribbean, Europe, and North America was 2.8%, 2.9%, 5.6%, 7.6%, 9.4%, and 11.5%, respectively. In SSA, there was a yearly 1.09-fold (95% CI: 1.05-1.14) increase in odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up attributable to an increase in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance. The odds of NNRTI-associated TDR also increased in Latin America/Caribbean (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25), North America (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26), Europe (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and upper-income Asian countries (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12-1.55). In SSEA, there was no significant change in the odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92-1.02). An analysis limited to sequences with mixtures at less than 0.5% of their nucleotide positions—a proxy for recent infection—yielded trends comparable to those obtained using the complete dataset. Four NNRTI SDRMs—K101E, K103N, Y181C, and G190A—accounted for >80% of NNRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes. Sixteen nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs accounted for >69% of NRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes. In SSA and SSEA, 89% of NNRTI SDRMs were associated with high-level resistance to nevirapine or efavirenz, whereas only 27% of NRTI SDRMs were associated with high-level resistance to zidovudine, lamivudine, tenofovir, or abacavir. Of 763 viruses with TDR in SSA and SSEA, 725 (95%) were genetically dissimilar; 38 (5%) formed 19 sequence pairs. Inherent limitations of this study are that some cohorts may not represent the broader regional population and that studies were heterogeneous with respect to duration of infection prior to sampling.

Conclusions: Most TDR strains in SSA and SSEA arose independently, suggesting that ARV regimens with a high genetic barrier to resistance combined with improved patient adherence may mitigate TDR increases by reducing the generation of new ARV-resistant strains. A small number of NNRTI-resistance mutations were responsible for most cases of high-level resistance, suggesting that inexpensive point-mutation assays to detect these mutations may be useful for pre-therapy screening in regions with high levels of TDR. In the context of a public health approach to ARV therapy, a reliable point-of-care genotypic resistance test could identify which patients should receive standard first-line therapy and which should receive a protease-inhibitor-containing regimen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Temporal trends in the yearly proportion of individuals having one or more surveillance drug-resistance mutations in Europe (and Israel).The x-axes represent the calendar year of the sample. The diameter of each circle is proportional to the number of samples sequenced that year. The fitted line shows the fixed effect of sample year in generalized linear mixed model regression.
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pmed.1001810.g008: Temporal trends in the yearly proportion of individuals having one or more surveillance drug-resistance mutations in Europe (and Israel).The x-axes represent the calendar year of the sample. The diameter of each circle is proportional to the number of samples sequenced that year. The fitted line shows the fixed effect of sample year in generalized linear mixed model regression.

Mentions: In Europe, there was a marginal yearly decrease in the odds of overall TDR (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.93–1.00), accompanied by a yearly decrease in NRTI-associated TDR (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.90–0.93) and a yearly increase in NNRTI-associated TDR (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01–1.13) (Fig 8). The decrease in overall TDR partly reflected the high levels of TDR in this region prior to 2000, in that a time trend analysis using only those virus samples obtained after 2000 did not show a significant change in the odds of overall TDR. In addition, the decrease resulted from a temporal increase in the proportion of viruses belonging to non-B subtypes, which were more likely to be from immigrants from LMICs. After adjusting for the presence of subtype B versus non-B subtypes, there was no yearly decrease in the odds of overall TDR, and the non-subtype-B viruses in Europe had significantly lower odds of TDR in any given year (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.43–0.6; p < 0.001) than subtype B viruses.


Geographic and temporal trends in the molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance: an individual-patient- and sequence-level meta-analysis.

Rhee SY, Blanco JL, Jordan MR, Taylor J, Lemey P, Varghese V, Hamers RL, Bertagnolio S, Rinke de Wit TF, Aghokeng AF, Albert J, Avi R, Avila-Rios S, Bessong PO, Brooks JI, Boucher CA, Brumme ZL, Busch MP, Bussmann H, Chaix ML, Chin BS, D'Aquin TT, De Gascun CF, Derache A, Descamps D, Deshpande AK, Djoko CF, Eshleman SH, Fleury H, Frange P, Fujisaki S, Harrigan PR, Hattori J, Holguin A, Hunt GM, Ichimura H, Kaleebu P, Katzenstein D, Kiertiburanakul S, Kim JH, Kim SS, Li Y, Lutsar I, Morris L, Ndembi N, Ng KP, Paranjape RS, Peeters M, Poljak M, Price MA, Ragonnet-Cronin ML, Reyes-Terán G, Rolland M, Sirivichayakul S, Smith DM, Soares MA, Soriano VV, Ssemwanga D, Stanojevic M, Stefani MA, Sugiura W, Sungkanuparph S, Tanuri A, Tee KK, Truong HH, van de Vijver DA, Vidal N, Yang C, Yang R, Yebra G, Ioannidis JP, Vandamme AM, Shafer RW - PLoS Med. (2015)

Temporal trends in the yearly proportion of individuals having one or more surveillance drug-resistance mutations in Europe (and Israel).The x-axes represent the calendar year of the sample. The diameter of each circle is proportional to the number of samples sequenced that year. The fitted line shows the fixed effect of sample year in generalized linear mixed model regression.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4388826&req=5

pmed.1001810.g008: Temporal trends in the yearly proportion of individuals having one or more surveillance drug-resistance mutations in Europe (and Israel).The x-axes represent the calendar year of the sample. The diameter of each circle is proportional to the number of samples sequenced that year. The fitted line shows the fixed effect of sample year in generalized linear mixed model regression.
Mentions: In Europe, there was a marginal yearly decrease in the odds of overall TDR (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.93–1.00), accompanied by a yearly decrease in NRTI-associated TDR (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.90–0.93) and a yearly increase in NNRTI-associated TDR (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01–1.13) (Fig 8). The decrease in overall TDR partly reflected the high levels of TDR in this region prior to 2000, in that a time trend analysis using only those virus samples obtained after 2000 did not show a significant change in the odds of overall TDR. In addition, the decrease resulted from a temporal increase in the proportion of viruses belonging to non-B subtypes, which were more likely to be from immigrants from LMICs. After adjusting for the presence of subtype B versus non-B subtypes, there was no yearly decrease in the odds of overall TDR, and the non-subtype-B viruses in Europe had significantly lower odds of TDR in any given year (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.43–0.6; p < 0.001) than subtype B viruses.

Bottom Line: Four NNRTI SDRMs—K101E, K103N, Y181C, and G190A—accounted for >80% of NNRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes.Sixteen nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs accounted for >69% of NRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes.Most TDR strains in SSA and SSEA arose independently, suggesting that ARV regimens with a high genetic barrier to resistance combined with improved patient adherence may mitigate TDR increases by reducing the generation of new ARV-resistant strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America. Leuven—University of Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, Leuven, Belgium.

ABSTRACT

Background: Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and to identify the HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations responsible for TDR in different regions and virus subtypes.

Methods and findings: We reviewed all GenBank submissions of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences with or without protease and identified 287 studies published between March 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, with more than 25 recently or chronically infected ARV-naïve individuals. These studies comprised 50,870 individuals from 111 countries. Each set of study sequences was analyzed for phylogenetic clustering and the presence of 93 surveillance drug-resistance mutations (SDRMs). The median overall TDR prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), south/southeast Asia (SSEA), upper-income Asian countries, Latin America/Caribbean, Europe, and North America was 2.8%, 2.9%, 5.6%, 7.6%, 9.4%, and 11.5%, respectively. In SSA, there was a yearly 1.09-fold (95% CI: 1.05-1.14) increase in odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up attributable to an increase in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance. The odds of NNRTI-associated TDR also increased in Latin America/Caribbean (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25), North America (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26), Europe (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and upper-income Asian countries (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12-1.55). In SSEA, there was no significant change in the odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92-1.02). An analysis limited to sequences with mixtures at less than 0.5% of their nucleotide positions—a proxy for recent infection—yielded trends comparable to those obtained using the complete dataset. Four NNRTI SDRMs—K101E, K103N, Y181C, and G190A—accounted for >80% of NNRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes. Sixteen nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs accounted for >69% of NRTI-associated TDR in all regions and subtypes. In SSA and SSEA, 89% of NNRTI SDRMs were associated with high-level resistance to nevirapine or efavirenz, whereas only 27% of NRTI SDRMs were associated with high-level resistance to zidovudine, lamivudine, tenofovir, or abacavir. Of 763 viruses with TDR in SSA and SSEA, 725 (95%) were genetically dissimilar; 38 (5%) formed 19 sequence pairs. Inherent limitations of this study are that some cohorts may not represent the broader regional population and that studies were heterogeneous with respect to duration of infection prior to sampling.

Conclusions: Most TDR strains in SSA and SSEA arose independently, suggesting that ARV regimens with a high genetic barrier to resistance combined with improved patient adherence may mitigate TDR increases by reducing the generation of new ARV-resistant strains. A small number of NNRTI-resistance mutations were responsible for most cases of high-level resistance, suggesting that inexpensive point-mutation assays to detect these mutations may be useful for pre-therapy screening in regions with high levels of TDR. In the context of a public health approach to ARV therapy, a reliable point-of-care genotypic resistance test could identify which patients should receive standard first-line therapy and which should receive a protease-inhibitor-containing regimen.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus