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High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

Lee S, Khang D, Kim SH - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages.In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity.Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

Materials and methods: For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated.

Results: Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity.

Conclusion: This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Particle size and electric potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes with different order of dispersion (carboxylation).Notes: (A) Particle size analysis of COOH-low, COOH-mid, and COOH-max functionalized swCNTs in PBS showed greater particle size as decreasing carboxylation and increasing narrow spectrum of size distribution. Inset image shows greater amount of plasma adsorption on swCNTs with increasing carboxylation. (B) XPS shows increasing oxide atoms with increasing order of carboxylation (COO−). (C) Zeta potential shows increase of negative charges with increasing carboxyl anions in PBS. (D) Diffusion constant (proportional to dispersity) in PBS shows greater diffusion constant with increasing carboxylation.Abbreviations: PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; swCNT, single-walled carbon nanotube; XPS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
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f1-ijn-10-2697: Particle size and electric potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes with different order of dispersion (carboxylation).Notes: (A) Particle size analysis of COOH-low, COOH-mid, and COOH-max functionalized swCNTs in PBS showed greater particle size as decreasing carboxylation and increasing narrow spectrum of size distribution. Inset image shows greater amount of plasma adsorption on swCNTs with increasing carboxylation. (B) XPS shows increasing oxide atoms with increasing order of carboxylation (COO−). (C) Zeta potential shows increase of negative charges with increasing carboxyl anions in PBS. (D) Diffusion constant (proportional to dispersity) in PBS shows greater diffusion constant with increasing carboxylation.Abbreviations: PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; swCNT, single-walled carbon nanotube; XPS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Mentions: Functionalization of swCNTs with carboxyl (COOH) terminated groups were successfully generated by the previous suggested protocols.27 FTIR confirmed increased carboxyl bonds at 1,724 (cm−1) with reduction of C=C bonds at 1,631 (cm−1) due to the breaking of carbon crystals from oxidation after acidic treatment (Figure S1A). Electrical potential also identified the surface charge of each functionalized swCNT (Figure 1C). Incremental carboxyl anions (COOH−) were generated in ranges from COOH-low to COOH-mid to COOH-max. Greater presence of anions resulted in increase of negative potential, as identified by Figure 1C.


High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

Lee S, Khang D, Kim SH - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Particle size and electric potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes with different order of dispersion (carboxylation).Notes: (A) Particle size analysis of COOH-low, COOH-mid, and COOH-max functionalized swCNTs in PBS showed greater particle size as decreasing carboxylation and increasing narrow spectrum of size distribution. Inset image shows greater amount of plasma adsorption on swCNTs with increasing carboxylation. (B) XPS shows increasing oxide atoms with increasing order of carboxylation (COO−). (C) Zeta potential shows increase of negative charges with increasing carboxyl anions in PBS. (D) Diffusion constant (proportional to dispersity) in PBS shows greater diffusion constant with increasing carboxylation.Abbreviations: PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; swCNT, single-walled carbon nanotube; XPS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4388092&req=5

f1-ijn-10-2697: Particle size and electric potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes with different order of dispersion (carboxylation).Notes: (A) Particle size analysis of COOH-low, COOH-mid, and COOH-max functionalized swCNTs in PBS showed greater particle size as decreasing carboxylation and increasing narrow spectrum of size distribution. Inset image shows greater amount of plasma adsorption on swCNTs with increasing carboxylation. (B) XPS shows increasing oxide atoms with increasing order of carboxylation (COO−). (C) Zeta potential shows increase of negative charges with increasing carboxyl anions in PBS. (D) Diffusion constant (proportional to dispersity) in PBS shows greater diffusion constant with increasing carboxylation.Abbreviations: PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; swCNT, single-walled carbon nanotube; XPS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Mentions: Functionalization of swCNTs with carboxyl (COOH) terminated groups were successfully generated by the previous suggested protocols.27 FTIR confirmed increased carboxyl bonds at 1,724 (cm−1) with reduction of C=C bonds at 1,631 (cm−1) due to the breaking of carbon crystals from oxidation after acidic treatment (Figure S1A). Electrical potential also identified the surface charge of each functionalized swCNT (Figure 1C). Incremental carboxyl anions (COOH−) were generated in ranges from COOH-low to COOH-mid to COOH-max. Greater presence of anions resulted in increase of negative potential, as identified by Figure 1C.

Bottom Line: For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages.In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity.Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

Materials and methods: For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated.

Results: Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity.

Conclusion: This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus