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Expression of Nephrin Homologue in the Freshwater Planarian, Dugesia japonica.

Nakamura T, Takagi S, Matsumoto M, Tashiro F, Sakai T, Ichimura K - Acta Histochem Cytochem (2014)

Bottom Line: Flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body of the planarian, but the nephrin-expressing cells identified by in situ hybridization were mainly detected at body periphery excluding head region.The distribution pattern of nephrin-expressing cells was similar to that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing neoblasts, which are pluripotent stem cells characteristic to planarians.These findings indicated that the SD-like structures can be formed without the Nephrin protein in planarian flame cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Life Structure, Juntendo University School of Medicine , 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan ; Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science , 6-3-1 Niijuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Excretory organs contain epithelial cells that form a filtration membrane specialized for ultrafiltration to produce primary urine. In vertebrates, the filtration membrane is made up of slit diaphragm (SD) formed by glomerular podocytes. Basal metazoans such as flatworms are also known have filtration epithelial cells, called flame cells, which exhibit SD-like structures. The molecular components of podocyte SD have been studied in detail, while those of the SD-like structures in basal metazoans including flatworms remain to be clarified. To determine whether the SD-like structures in flatworms have molecular components common to the SD in vertebrate podocytes, we examined the expression of gene homologue for mammalian nephrin, which encodes an essential transmembrane protein that participates in the formation of the SD, in a species of flatworms, planarian (Dugesia japonica). Flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body of the planarian, but the nephrin-expressing cells identified by in situ hybridization were mainly detected at body periphery excluding head region. The distribution pattern of nephrin-expressing cells was similar to that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing neoblasts, which are pluripotent stem cells characteristic to planarians. These findings indicated that the SD-like structures can be formed without the Nephrin protein in planarian flame cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of flame cells in the planarian D. japonica. Distribution of flame cells is shown in the three regions which are indicated by rectangles in A. Motile cilia of flame cells were detected by whole-mount immunostaining with anti-acetylated α-tubulin (Ac-tub) antibody, and visualized as characteristic fox-tail-like signals (arrowheads in B, C, D). The flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body including head region. Asterisks in B, eyes; asterisks in C, motile cilia of epidermis. Bar=50 μm.
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Figure 2: Distribution of flame cells in the planarian D. japonica. Distribution of flame cells is shown in the three regions which are indicated by rectangles in A. Motile cilia of flame cells were detected by whole-mount immunostaining with anti-acetylated α-tubulin (Ac-tub) antibody, and visualized as characteristic fox-tail-like signals (arrowheads in B, C, D). The flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body including head region. Asterisks in B, eyes; asterisks in C, motile cilia of epidermis. Bar=50 μm.

Mentions: Next, to determine the distribution of planarian flame cells, we visualized the cells using whole-mount immunohistochemical detection for acetylated α-tubulin (Fig. 2), since the flame bulb contained a bundle of motile cilia (arrows in Fig. 1B, E), whose axonemal α-tubulin was highly acetylated. The bundle of cilia in the flame bulb exhibited a characteristic fox-tail appearance (arrowheads in Fig. 2B–D), as reported in another planarian Schmidtea mediterranea [19]. The flame cells were situated beneath the epidermis and recognized to be distributed throughout the entire body.


Expression of Nephrin Homologue in the Freshwater Planarian, Dugesia japonica.

Nakamura T, Takagi S, Matsumoto M, Tashiro F, Sakai T, Ichimura K - Acta Histochem Cytochem (2014)

Distribution of flame cells in the planarian D. japonica. Distribution of flame cells is shown in the three regions which are indicated by rectangles in A. Motile cilia of flame cells were detected by whole-mount immunostaining with anti-acetylated α-tubulin (Ac-tub) antibody, and visualized as characteristic fox-tail-like signals (arrowheads in B, C, D). The flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body including head region. Asterisks in B, eyes; asterisks in C, motile cilia of epidermis. Bar=50 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4387267&req=5

Figure 2: Distribution of flame cells in the planarian D. japonica. Distribution of flame cells is shown in the three regions which are indicated by rectangles in A. Motile cilia of flame cells were detected by whole-mount immunostaining with anti-acetylated α-tubulin (Ac-tub) antibody, and visualized as characteristic fox-tail-like signals (arrowheads in B, C, D). The flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body including head region. Asterisks in B, eyes; asterisks in C, motile cilia of epidermis. Bar=50 μm.
Mentions: Next, to determine the distribution of planarian flame cells, we visualized the cells using whole-mount immunohistochemical detection for acetylated α-tubulin (Fig. 2), since the flame bulb contained a bundle of motile cilia (arrows in Fig. 1B, E), whose axonemal α-tubulin was highly acetylated. The bundle of cilia in the flame bulb exhibited a characteristic fox-tail appearance (arrowheads in Fig. 2B–D), as reported in another planarian Schmidtea mediterranea [19]. The flame cells were situated beneath the epidermis and recognized to be distributed throughout the entire body.

Bottom Line: Flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body of the planarian, but the nephrin-expressing cells identified by in situ hybridization were mainly detected at body periphery excluding head region.The distribution pattern of nephrin-expressing cells was similar to that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing neoblasts, which are pluripotent stem cells characteristic to planarians.These findings indicated that the SD-like structures can be formed without the Nephrin protein in planarian flame cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy and Life Structure, Juntendo University School of Medicine , 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan ; Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science , 6-3-1 Niijuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Excretory organs contain epithelial cells that form a filtration membrane specialized for ultrafiltration to produce primary urine. In vertebrates, the filtration membrane is made up of slit diaphragm (SD) formed by glomerular podocytes. Basal metazoans such as flatworms are also known have filtration epithelial cells, called flame cells, which exhibit SD-like structures. The molecular components of podocyte SD have been studied in detail, while those of the SD-like structures in basal metazoans including flatworms remain to be clarified. To determine whether the SD-like structures in flatworms have molecular components common to the SD in vertebrate podocytes, we examined the expression of gene homologue for mammalian nephrin, which encodes an essential transmembrane protein that participates in the formation of the SD, in a species of flatworms, planarian (Dugesia japonica). Flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body of the planarian, but the nephrin-expressing cells identified by in situ hybridization were mainly detected at body periphery excluding head region. The distribution pattern of nephrin-expressing cells was similar to that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing neoblasts, which are pluripotent stem cells characteristic to planarians. These findings indicated that the SD-like structures can be formed without the Nephrin protein in planarian flame cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus