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Contribution of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation to retinal degenerative diseases.

Madeira MH, Boia R, Santos PF, Ambrósio AF, Santiago AR - Mediators Inflamm. (2015)

Bottom Line: One common feature of retinal degenerative diseases and brain neurodegenerative diseases is chronic neuroinflammation.There is growing evidence that retinal microglia, as in the brain, become activated in the course of retinal degenerative diseases, having a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of the neurodegenerative process.This review aims at giving an overview of the roles of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in major retinal degenerative diseases like glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3004-548 Coimbra, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Retinal degenerative diseases are major causes of vision loss and blindness worldwide and are characterized by chronic and progressive neuronal loss. One common feature of retinal degenerative diseases and brain neurodegenerative diseases is chronic neuroinflammation. There is growing evidence that retinal microglia, as in the brain, become activated in the course of retinal degenerative diseases, having a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of the neurodegenerative process. A better understanding of the events elicited and mediated by retinal microglia will contribute to the clarification of disease etiology and might open new avenues for potential therapeutic interventions. This review aims at giving an overview of the roles of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in major retinal degenerative diseases like glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the major retinal cell types and their organization in the retina. The outermost part of the retina is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which consists of a monolayer of cuboid, pigmented cells between the photoreceptors and the choroid. The retina is divided into three laminar layers: the outer nuclear layer (ONL), the inner nuclear layer (INL), and the ganglion cell layer (GCL). The nuclei of rod and cone photoreceptors are located in the ONL. The INL comprises the nuclei of the bipolar, horizontal, and amacrine cells. Cell bodies of the retinal ganglion cells are present in the GCL, and their axons form the nerve fiber layer (NFL), just beneath the GCL. Synapses between photoreceptors and interneurons are located in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and interneurons synapse with RGC in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Müller cells span all retinal layers. Microglia are mainly found in IPL and GCL, whereas astrocytes are located near the NFL.
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fig1: Schematic representation of the major retinal cell types and their organization in the retina. The outermost part of the retina is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which consists of a monolayer of cuboid, pigmented cells between the photoreceptors and the choroid. The retina is divided into three laminar layers: the outer nuclear layer (ONL), the inner nuclear layer (INL), and the ganglion cell layer (GCL). The nuclei of rod and cone photoreceptors are located in the ONL. The INL comprises the nuclei of the bipolar, horizontal, and amacrine cells. Cell bodies of the retinal ganglion cells are present in the GCL, and their axons form the nerve fiber layer (NFL), just beneath the GCL. Synapses between photoreceptors and interneurons are located in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and interneurons synapse with RGC in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Müller cells span all retinal layers. Microglia are mainly found in IPL and GCL, whereas astrocytes are located near the NFL.

Mentions: The retina is part of the central nervous system (CNS) due to its neuroectodermal origin and derivation from the anterior neural tube. The mature mammalian retina is structured in nuclear layers of neurons. The outermost layer of the retina is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which is followed by the outer nuclear layer (ONL) that contains the cell bodies of photoreceptors. The inner nuclear layer (INL) contains the cell bodies of the bipolar, horizontal, and amacrine cells, and the ganglion cell layer (GCL) is composed by the nuclei of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and of displaced amacrine cells. These cells are interconnected through synapses that occur in the outer and inner plexiform layers (Figure 1). Besides neurons, other cells are present in the retina, such as glial cells (Müller cells, astrocytes, and microglia) and the cells that constitute the retinal vessels (endothelial cells and pericytes). The RPE is a monolayer of cuboid, pigmented cells in which the apical membrane faces the photoreceptor outer segments, with important functions for retinal physiology (reviewed in [1]).


Contribution of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation to retinal degenerative diseases.

Madeira MH, Boia R, Santos PF, Ambrósio AF, Santiago AR - Mediators Inflamm. (2015)

Schematic representation of the major retinal cell types and their organization in the retina. The outermost part of the retina is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which consists of a monolayer of cuboid, pigmented cells between the photoreceptors and the choroid. The retina is divided into three laminar layers: the outer nuclear layer (ONL), the inner nuclear layer (INL), and the ganglion cell layer (GCL). The nuclei of rod and cone photoreceptors are located in the ONL. The INL comprises the nuclei of the bipolar, horizontal, and amacrine cells. Cell bodies of the retinal ganglion cells are present in the GCL, and their axons form the nerve fiber layer (NFL), just beneath the GCL. Synapses between photoreceptors and interneurons are located in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and interneurons synapse with RGC in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Müller cells span all retinal layers. Microglia are mainly found in IPL and GCL, whereas astrocytes are located near the NFL.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385698&req=5

fig1: Schematic representation of the major retinal cell types and their organization in the retina. The outermost part of the retina is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which consists of a monolayer of cuboid, pigmented cells between the photoreceptors and the choroid. The retina is divided into three laminar layers: the outer nuclear layer (ONL), the inner nuclear layer (INL), and the ganglion cell layer (GCL). The nuclei of rod and cone photoreceptors are located in the ONL. The INL comprises the nuclei of the bipolar, horizontal, and amacrine cells. Cell bodies of the retinal ganglion cells are present in the GCL, and their axons form the nerve fiber layer (NFL), just beneath the GCL. Synapses between photoreceptors and interneurons are located in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and interneurons synapse with RGC in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Müller cells span all retinal layers. Microglia are mainly found in IPL and GCL, whereas astrocytes are located near the NFL.
Mentions: The retina is part of the central nervous system (CNS) due to its neuroectodermal origin and derivation from the anterior neural tube. The mature mammalian retina is structured in nuclear layers of neurons. The outermost layer of the retina is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which is followed by the outer nuclear layer (ONL) that contains the cell bodies of photoreceptors. The inner nuclear layer (INL) contains the cell bodies of the bipolar, horizontal, and amacrine cells, and the ganglion cell layer (GCL) is composed by the nuclei of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and of displaced amacrine cells. These cells are interconnected through synapses that occur in the outer and inner plexiform layers (Figure 1). Besides neurons, other cells are present in the retina, such as glial cells (Müller cells, astrocytes, and microglia) and the cells that constitute the retinal vessels (endothelial cells and pericytes). The RPE is a monolayer of cuboid, pigmented cells in which the apical membrane faces the photoreceptor outer segments, with important functions for retinal physiology (reviewed in [1]).

Bottom Line: One common feature of retinal degenerative diseases and brain neurodegenerative diseases is chronic neuroinflammation.There is growing evidence that retinal microglia, as in the brain, become activated in the course of retinal degenerative diseases, having a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of the neurodegenerative process.This review aims at giving an overview of the roles of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in major retinal degenerative diseases like glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3004-548 Coimbra, Portugal.

ABSTRACT
Retinal degenerative diseases are major causes of vision loss and blindness worldwide and are characterized by chronic and progressive neuronal loss. One common feature of retinal degenerative diseases and brain neurodegenerative diseases is chronic neuroinflammation. There is growing evidence that retinal microglia, as in the brain, become activated in the course of retinal degenerative diseases, having a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of the neurodegenerative process. A better understanding of the events elicited and mediated by retinal microglia will contribute to the clarification of disease etiology and might open new avenues for potential therapeutic interventions. This review aims at giving an overview of the roles of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in major retinal degenerative diseases like glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus