Limits...
Dietary supplementation with the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) reduces prolonged exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.

Carfagna S, Napolitano G, Barone D, Pinto G, Pollio A, Venditti P - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria.G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations.In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of prolonged exercise and G. sulphuraria treatment on rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle enzyme activities of gluthatione peroxidase (GPX) and reductase (GR) activities. Values are mean ± S.E.M. For each value eight rats were used. GPX and GR activities are expressed as μmol NADPH min−1 per g of tissue. S: sedentary untreated rats; SG: sedentary G. sulphuraria treated rats; E: exercised untreated rats; EG: exercised G. sulphuraria treated rats.  aSignificant difference for exercised rats versus respective sedentary controls;  bsignificant difference for G. sulphuraria treated animals versus respective untreated controls. The level of significance was chosen as P < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385680&req=5

fig7: Effect of prolonged exercise and G. sulphuraria treatment on rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle enzyme activities of gluthatione peroxidase (GPX) and reductase (GR) activities. Values are mean ± S.E.M. For each value eight rats were used. GPX and GR activities are expressed as μmol NADPH min−1 per g of tissue. S: sedentary untreated rats; SG: sedentary G. sulphuraria treated rats; E: exercised untreated rats; EG: exercised G. sulphuraria treated rats.  aSignificant difference for exercised rats versus respective sedentary controls;  bsignificant difference for G. sulphuraria treated animals versus respective untreated controls. The level of significance was chosen as P < 0.05.

Mentions: The tissue GSH content is reported in Figure 6, upper panel. Prolonged exercise lowered the GSH content in liver, heart, and muscle independently of alga treatment. Alga supplementation increased GSH content in sedentary and in exercised rats. The tissue GSH/GSSG ratio is reported in Figure 6, lower panel. Prolonged exercise reduced the GSH/GSSG ratio in liver, heart, and muscle of alga untreated rats and in muscle of alga treated rats. Alga supplementation increases GSH/GSSG ratio in liver and heart of both sedentary and exercised rats. Moreover, prolonged exercise increased GPX and GR (Figure 7) activities in liver and GR activity in heart, irrespective of algal supplementation.


Dietary supplementation with the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) reduces prolonged exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.

Carfagna S, Napolitano G, Barone D, Pinto G, Pollio A, Venditti P - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Effect of prolonged exercise and G. sulphuraria treatment on rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle enzyme activities of gluthatione peroxidase (GPX) and reductase (GR) activities. Values are mean ± S.E.M. For each value eight rats were used. GPX and GR activities are expressed as μmol NADPH min−1 per g of tissue. S: sedentary untreated rats; SG: sedentary G. sulphuraria treated rats; E: exercised untreated rats; EG: exercised G. sulphuraria treated rats.  aSignificant difference for exercised rats versus respective sedentary controls;  bsignificant difference for G. sulphuraria treated animals versus respective untreated controls. The level of significance was chosen as P < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385680&req=5

fig7: Effect of prolonged exercise and G. sulphuraria treatment on rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle enzyme activities of gluthatione peroxidase (GPX) and reductase (GR) activities. Values are mean ± S.E.M. For each value eight rats were used. GPX and GR activities are expressed as μmol NADPH min−1 per g of tissue. S: sedentary untreated rats; SG: sedentary G. sulphuraria treated rats; E: exercised untreated rats; EG: exercised G. sulphuraria treated rats.  aSignificant difference for exercised rats versus respective sedentary controls;  bsignificant difference for G. sulphuraria treated animals versus respective untreated controls. The level of significance was chosen as P < 0.05.
Mentions: The tissue GSH content is reported in Figure 6, upper panel. Prolonged exercise lowered the GSH content in liver, heart, and muscle independently of alga treatment. Alga supplementation increased GSH content in sedentary and in exercised rats. The tissue GSH/GSSG ratio is reported in Figure 6, lower panel. Prolonged exercise reduced the GSH/GSSG ratio in liver, heart, and muscle of alga untreated rats and in muscle of alga treated rats. Alga supplementation increases GSH/GSSG ratio in liver and heart of both sedentary and exercised rats. Moreover, prolonged exercise increased GPX and GR (Figure 7) activities in liver and GR activity in heart, irrespective of algal supplementation.

Bottom Line: Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria.G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations.In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus