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Dietary supplementation with the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) reduces prolonged exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.

Carfagna S, Napolitano G, Barone D, Pinto G, Pollio A, Venditti P - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria.G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations.In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic protocol of rat treatments; 110-day-old animals were randomly assigned to one of two dietary regimens of ten days, receiving either the control diet or a G. sulphuraria supplemented diet, consisting of commercial rat chow to which the algae were added to a final concentration of 10 g/Kg. One half of the animals on both the control and supplemented diets were subjected to a 6 h swimming exercise before the sacrifice. The animals swam in a plastic container that was 100 cm high, filled to a depth of 45 cm with water maintained at a temperature between 35 and 36°C. A weight equivalent to the 2% of their body weight was tied to the tail of each rat. Sedentary animals were sacrificed at rest having been kept for 6 h in a small chamber holding about 3 cm of water at 35°C. S: sedentary untreated rats; SG: sedentary G. sulphuraria treated rats; E: exercised untreated rats; EG: exercised G. sulphuraria treated rats.
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fig1: Schematic protocol of rat treatments; 110-day-old animals were randomly assigned to one of two dietary regimens of ten days, receiving either the control diet or a G. sulphuraria supplemented diet, consisting of commercial rat chow to which the algae were added to a final concentration of 10 g/Kg. One half of the animals on both the control and supplemented diets were subjected to a 6 h swimming exercise before the sacrifice. The animals swam in a plastic container that was 100 cm high, filled to a depth of 45 cm with water maintained at a temperature between 35 and 36°C. A weight equivalent to the 2% of their body weight was tied to the tail of each rat. Sedentary animals were sacrificed at rest having been kept for 6 h in a small chamber holding about 3 cm of water at 35°C. S: sedentary untreated rats; SG: sedentary G. sulphuraria treated rats; E: exercised untreated rats; EG: exercised G. sulphuraria treated rats.

Mentions: The experiments were carried out on 120-day-old male Wistar rats, supplied by Nossan (Correzzana, Italy) at day 100 of age. All rats were subjected to the same conditions (one per cage, constant artificial circadian cycle of 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness, and 50 ± 10% relative humidity) and fed the same diet, a commercial rat chow purchased from Nossan, and water on an ad libitum basis. From day 110, animals were randomly assigned to one of two dietary regimens, receiving either the control diet or a G. sulphuraria supplemented diet, consisting of commercial rat chow to which the algae were added to a final concentration of 10 g/Kg. The animals were maintained on their respective diets for 10 days. One half of the animals on both the control and supplemented diets were subjected to swimming exercise, so we obtained four rat groups: control sedentary (S), algae fed sedentary (SG), exercised (E), and algae fed exercised (EG) rats (Figure 1). Exercised rats were sacrificed immediately after a 6 h swimming exercise. The animals swam in a plastic container that was 100 cm high, filled to a depth of 45 cm with water maintained at a temperature between 35 and 36°C. A weight equivalent to the 2% of their body weight was tied to the tail of each rat. Sedentary animals were sacrificed at rest having been kept for 6 h in a small chamber holding about 3 cm of water at 35°C.


Dietary supplementation with the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) reduces prolonged exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.

Carfagna S, Napolitano G, Barone D, Pinto G, Pollio A, Venditti P - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Schematic protocol of rat treatments; 110-day-old animals were randomly assigned to one of two dietary regimens of ten days, receiving either the control diet or a G. sulphuraria supplemented diet, consisting of commercial rat chow to which the algae were added to a final concentration of 10 g/Kg. One half of the animals on both the control and supplemented diets were subjected to a 6 h swimming exercise before the sacrifice. The animals swam in a plastic container that was 100 cm high, filled to a depth of 45 cm with water maintained at a temperature between 35 and 36°C. A weight equivalent to the 2% of their body weight was tied to the tail of each rat. Sedentary animals were sacrificed at rest having been kept for 6 h in a small chamber holding about 3 cm of water at 35°C. S: sedentary untreated rats; SG: sedentary G. sulphuraria treated rats; E: exercised untreated rats; EG: exercised G. sulphuraria treated rats.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385680&req=5

fig1: Schematic protocol of rat treatments; 110-day-old animals were randomly assigned to one of two dietary regimens of ten days, receiving either the control diet or a G. sulphuraria supplemented diet, consisting of commercial rat chow to which the algae were added to a final concentration of 10 g/Kg. One half of the animals on both the control and supplemented diets were subjected to a 6 h swimming exercise before the sacrifice. The animals swam in a plastic container that was 100 cm high, filled to a depth of 45 cm with water maintained at a temperature between 35 and 36°C. A weight equivalent to the 2% of their body weight was tied to the tail of each rat. Sedentary animals were sacrificed at rest having been kept for 6 h in a small chamber holding about 3 cm of water at 35°C. S: sedentary untreated rats; SG: sedentary G. sulphuraria treated rats; E: exercised untreated rats; EG: exercised G. sulphuraria treated rats.
Mentions: The experiments were carried out on 120-day-old male Wistar rats, supplied by Nossan (Correzzana, Italy) at day 100 of age. All rats were subjected to the same conditions (one per cage, constant artificial circadian cycle of 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness, and 50 ± 10% relative humidity) and fed the same diet, a commercial rat chow purchased from Nossan, and water on an ad libitum basis. From day 110, animals were randomly assigned to one of two dietary regimens, receiving either the control diet or a G. sulphuraria supplemented diet, consisting of commercial rat chow to which the algae were added to a final concentration of 10 g/Kg. The animals were maintained on their respective diets for 10 days. One half of the animals on both the control and supplemented diets were subjected to swimming exercise, so we obtained four rat groups: control sedentary (S), algae fed sedentary (SG), exercised (E), and algae fed exercised (EG) rats (Figure 1). Exercised rats were sacrificed immediately after a 6 h swimming exercise. The animals swam in a plastic container that was 100 cm high, filled to a depth of 45 cm with water maintained at a temperature between 35 and 36°C. A weight equivalent to the 2% of their body weight was tied to the tail of each rat. Sedentary animals were sacrificed at rest having been kept for 6 h in a small chamber holding about 3 cm of water at 35°C.

Bottom Line: Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria.G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations.In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus