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Isolation and molecular identification of deteriorating fungi from Cyrus the Great tomb stones.

Mohammadi P, Maghboli-Balasjin N - Iran J Microbiol (2014)

Bottom Line: In addition, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the PCR products were done.Finally, phylogenic tree was constructed basde on the sequences of ITs region.The common inhabiting fungi which isolated from the tomb limestone belong to Caldosporium sp., Embellisia sp., Cryptococcus sp., Candida sp., Meyerozyma sp., Arthirinium sp., Ulocladium sp., Fusarium sp., Humicola sp. and Pseudozyma sp..

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biological Sciences, Alzahra University, Vanak, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Biodeterioration is an irreversible damage that is caused by colonization of microorganisms on the surface of different materials. Among all microorganisms, fungi play an important role in deterioration of materials. Fungi can colonize on stone surfaces and by secreting different enzymes, organic and inorganic acids and pigments, can cause bio-weathering and changing not only the substrate materials but the color of stones. Furthermore, fungal mycelia can penetrate into the internal surfaces of stones and change the interior chemical contents of stones. Pasargadae including Cyrus the Great Tomb is entitled by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites. This study was focused on the identification of fungi that were colonized on the tomb limestone monument.

Materials and methods: Sampling of stone was carried out to identify inhabiting molds and yeasts. biochemical and microscopic methods were used for isolated strains. In addition, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the PCR products were done. Finally, phylogenic tree was constructed basde on the sequences of ITs region.

Results and conclusion: The common inhabiting fungi which isolated from the tomb limestone belong to Caldosporium sp., Embellisia sp., Cryptococcus sp., Candida sp., Meyerozyma sp., Arthirinium sp., Ulocladium sp., Fusarium sp., Humicola sp. and Pseudozyma sp.. Stereomicroscopic and Scanning Electron Microscope images and XRD, were taken from pieces of stone samples and indicated the severe pattern damages such as pitting, biomineralization, etching and sugaring on the surfaces of stones.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Actinomycets, fungal mycelia, bacterial cells and salt crystals. (b) Surface layers of limestone and crystals on it. (c) Penetration of fungal mycelia in the limestone, also sugaring phenomenon on the surface of the limeston can be seen. (d) SEM micrograph shows mycelia of fungi, actinomycetes and crystals. Penetration of fungal mycelia is observed.
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Figure 3: (a) Actinomycets, fungal mycelia, bacterial cells and salt crystals. (b) Surface layers of limestone and crystals on it. (c) Penetration of fungal mycelia in the limestone, also sugaring phenomenon on the surface of the limeston can be seen. (d) SEM micrograph shows mycelia of fungi, actinomycetes and crystals. Penetration of fungal mycelia is observed.

Mentions: Using stereomicroscope, micro-colony fungion surface of stones were observed which created biopitting pattern on it as shown in Fig. 2. SEM micrographs showed clearly spores and fungal mycelia, actinomycetes, algae and lichens. Sugaring, etching, crystallization and biopitting were observed on the stone samples (Fig. 3, a-d).


Isolation and molecular identification of deteriorating fungi from Cyrus the Great tomb stones.

Mohammadi P, Maghboli-Balasjin N - Iran J Microbiol (2014)

(a) Actinomycets, fungal mycelia, bacterial cells and salt crystals. (b) Surface layers of limestone and crystals on it. (c) Penetration of fungal mycelia in the limestone, also sugaring phenomenon on the surface of the limeston can be seen. (d) SEM micrograph shows mycelia of fungi, actinomycetes and crystals. Penetration of fungal mycelia is observed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385579&req=5

Figure 3: (a) Actinomycets, fungal mycelia, bacterial cells and salt crystals. (b) Surface layers of limestone and crystals on it. (c) Penetration of fungal mycelia in the limestone, also sugaring phenomenon on the surface of the limeston can be seen. (d) SEM micrograph shows mycelia of fungi, actinomycetes and crystals. Penetration of fungal mycelia is observed.
Mentions: Using stereomicroscope, micro-colony fungion surface of stones were observed which created biopitting pattern on it as shown in Fig. 2. SEM micrographs showed clearly spores and fungal mycelia, actinomycetes, algae and lichens. Sugaring, etching, crystallization and biopitting were observed on the stone samples (Fig. 3, a-d).

Bottom Line: In addition, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the PCR products were done.Finally, phylogenic tree was constructed basde on the sequences of ITs region.The common inhabiting fungi which isolated from the tomb limestone belong to Caldosporium sp., Embellisia sp., Cryptococcus sp., Candida sp., Meyerozyma sp., Arthirinium sp., Ulocladium sp., Fusarium sp., Humicola sp. and Pseudozyma sp..

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biological Sciences, Alzahra University, Vanak, Tehran, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Biodeterioration is an irreversible damage that is caused by colonization of microorganisms on the surface of different materials. Among all microorganisms, fungi play an important role in deterioration of materials. Fungi can colonize on stone surfaces and by secreting different enzymes, organic and inorganic acids and pigments, can cause bio-weathering and changing not only the substrate materials but the color of stones. Furthermore, fungal mycelia can penetrate into the internal surfaces of stones and change the interior chemical contents of stones. Pasargadae including Cyrus the Great Tomb is entitled by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites. This study was focused on the identification of fungi that were colonized on the tomb limestone monument.

Materials and methods: Sampling of stone was carried out to identify inhabiting molds and yeasts. biochemical and microscopic methods were used for isolated strains. In addition, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the PCR products were done. Finally, phylogenic tree was constructed basde on the sequences of ITs region.

Results and conclusion: The common inhabiting fungi which isolated from the tomb limestone belong to Caldosporium sp., Embellisia sp., Cryptococcus sp., Candida sp., Meyerozyma sp., Arthirinium sp., Ulocladium sp., Fusarium sp., Humicola sp. and Pseudozyma sp.. Stereomicroscopic and Scanning Electron Microscope images and XRD, were taken from pieces of stone samples and indicated the severe pattern damages such as pitting, biomineralization, etching and sugaring on the surfaces of stones.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus