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Nanosized silver (II) pyridoxine complex to cause greater inflammatory response and less cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

Paul A, Ju H, Rangasamy S, Shim Y, Song JM - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Bottom Line: Surprisingly, however, AgPyNPs caused macrophage RAW264.7 cells to secrete a larger amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and generate a more active inflammatory response compared to AgNPs.It activated TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 to generate a more vigorous immune protection that produces a greater amount of IL-8 compared to AgNPs.Thus, it can be used as a better wound-healing agent than AgNPs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-ku, Seoul, 151-742 Korea.

ABSTRACT
With advancements in nanotechnology, silver has been engineered into a nanometre size and has attracted great research interest for use in the treatment of wounds. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics because of their potential antimicrobial property. However, AgNPs also induce cytotoxicity, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cause mitochondrial damage to human cells. Pyridoxine possesses antioxidant and cell proliferation activity. Therefore, in the present investigation, a nanosilver-pyridoxine complex (AgPyNP) was synthesized, and its cytotoxicity and immune response was compared with AgNPs in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Results revealed that AgPyNPs showed less cytotoxicity compared with AgNPs by producing a smaller amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells. Surprisingly, however, AgPyNPs caused macrophage RAW264.7 cells to secrete a larger amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and generate a more active inflammatory response compared to AgNPs. It activated TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 to generate a more vigorous immune protection that produces a greater amount of IL-8 compared to AgNPs. Overall findings indicate that AgPyNPs exhibited less cytotoxicity and evoked a greater immune response in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Thus, it can be used as a better wound-healing agent than AgNPs. Graphical AbstractFigurative representation of the comparison of AgNPs and AgPyNPs in macrophage RAW264.7 cells in terms of cytotoxicity and immune response.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fluorescent images and bar graphs of AgNP- and AgPyNP-treated RAW264.7 cells. (a) Photographs represent TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 activation after AgNp and AgPyNp treatment in RAW264.7 cells, and the scale bar represents 15 μm. Fluorescent images were taken at 525 nm (TNF-α), 565 nm (NF-κB p65), or 625 nm (NF-κB p50). (b) Bar graphs represent the mean ± SD intensity values of triplicate treatment groups to analyse the ROS generation in AgNP- and AgPyNP-treated RAW264.7 cells. Error bars represent the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Student’s t-test was used to determine the statistical significance: ***P < 0.001. Presented data were combined from at least three experiments. AgNPs, silver nanoparticles; AgPyNPs, nanosilver-pyridoxine complexes; BF, bright field.
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Fig6: Fluorescent images and bar graphs of AgNP- and AgPyNP-treated RAW264.7 cells. (a) Photographs represent TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 activation after AgNp and AgPyNp treatment in RAW264.7 cells, and the scale bar represents 15 μm. Fluorescent images were taken at 525 nm (TNF-α), 565 nm (NF-κB p65), or 625 nm (NF-κB p50). (b) Bar graphs represent the mean ± SD intensity values of triplicate treatment groups to analyse the ROS generation in AgNP- and AgPyNP-treated RAW264.7 cells. Error bars represent the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Student’s t-test was used to determine the statistical significance: ***P < 0.001. Presented data were combined from at least three experiments. AgNPs, silver nanoparticles; AgPyNPs, nanosilver-pyridoxine complexes; BF, bright field.

Mentions: High-content cellular imaging cytometry was used to analyse the expressions of TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50. As shown in Figure 6a,b, the expression of TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 increased with AgNP and AgPyNP treatments compared to that of untreated cells. Here, AgPyNPs exhibited a greater activation of TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 than AgNPs. From Figure 6a,b, it was clearly observed that, for all of the cases, the AgPyNP-treated cells phosphorylated more TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 than AgNP-treated cells. These results indicated that AgPyNPs strengthened the inflammation response by activating TNF-α and NF-κB and, thus, contributed to the enhancement of the wound-healing process better than AgNPs.Figure 6


Nanosized silver (II) pyridoxine complex to cause greater inflammatory response and less cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

Paul A, Ju H, Rangasamy S, Shim Y, Song JM - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Fluorescent images and bar graphs of AgNP- and AgPyNP-treated RAW264.7 cells. (a) Photographs represent TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 activation after AgNp and AgPyNp treatment in RAW264.7 cells, and the scale bar represents 15 μm. Fluorescent images were taken at 525 nm (TNF-α), 565 nm (NF-κB p65), or 625 nm (NF-κB p50). (b) Bar graphs represent the mean ± SD intensity values of triplicate treatment groups to analyse the ROS generation in AgNP- and AgPyNP-treated RAW264.7 cells. Error bars represent the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Student’s t-test was used to determine the statistical significance: ***P < 0.001. Presented data were combined from at least three experiments. AgNPs, silver nanoparticles; AgPyNPs, nanosilver-pyridoxine complexes; BF, bright field.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385296&req=5

Fig6: Fluorescent images and bar graphs of AgNP- and AgPyNP-treated RAW264.7 cells. (a) Photographs represent TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 activation after AgNp and AgPyNp treatment in RAW264.7 cells, and the scale bar represents 15 μm. Fluorescent images were taken at 525 nm (TNF-α), 565 nm (NF-κB p65), or 625 nm (NF-κB p50). (b) Bar graphs represent the mean ± SD intensity values of triplicate treatment groups to analyse the ROS generation in AgNP- and AgPyNP-treated RAW264.7 cells. Error bars represent the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Student’s t-test was used to determine the statistical significance: ***P < 0.001. Presented data were combined from at least three experiments. AgNPs, silver nanoparticles; AgPyNPs, nanosilver-pyridoxine complexes; BF, bright field.
Mentions: High-content cellular imaging cytometry was used to analyse the expressions of TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50. As shown in Figure 6a,b, the expression of TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 increased with AgNP and AgPyNP treatments compared to that of untreated cells. Here, AgPyNPs exhibited a greater activation of TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 than AgNPs. From Figure 6a,b, it was clearly observed that, for all of the cases, the AgPyNP-treated cells phosphorylated more TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 than AgNP-treated cells. These results indicated that AgPyNPs strengthened the inflammation response by activating TNF-α and NF-κB and, thus, contributed to the enhancement of the wound-healing process better than AgNPs.Figure 6

Bottom Line: Surprisingly, however, AgPyNPs caused macrophage RAW264.7 cells to secrete a larger amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and generate a more active inflammatory response compared to AgNPs.It activated TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 to generate a more vigorous immune protection that produces a greater amount of IL-8 compared to AgNPs.Thus, it can be used as a better wound-healing agent than AgNPs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-ku, Seoul, 151-742 Korea.

ABSTRACT
With advancements in nanotechnology, silver has been engineered into a nanometre size and has attracted great research interest for use in the treatment of wounds. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics because of their potential antimicrobial property. However, AgNPs also induce cytotoxicity, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cause mitochondrial damage to human cells. Pyridoxine possesses antioxidant and cell proliferation activity. Therefore, in the present investigation, a nanosilver-pyridoxine complex (AgPyNP) was synthesized, and its cytotoxicity and immune response was compared with AgNPs in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Results revealed that AgPyNPs showed less cytotoxicity compared with AgNPs by producing a smaller amount of ROS in RAW264.7 cells. Surprisingly, however, AgPyNPs caused macrophage RAW264.7 cells to secrete a larger amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and generate a more active inflammatory response compared to AgNPs. It activated TNF-α, NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 to generate a more vigorous immune protection that produces a greater amount of IL-8 compared to AgNPs. Overall findings indicate that AgPyNPs exhibited less cytotoxicity and evoked a greater immune response in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Thus, it can be used as a better wound-healing agent than AgNPs. Graphical AbstractFigurative representation of the comparison of AgNPs and AgPyNPs in macrophage RAW264.7 cells in terms of cytotoxicity and immune response.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus