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Direct patterning of gold nanoparticles using flexographic printing for biosensing applications.

Benson J, Fung CM, Lloyd JS, Deganello D, Smith NA, Teng KS - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Bottom Line: The average size of the printed AuNPs is less than 60 nm.Glucose sensing tests were performed using printed carbon-AuNP electrodes functionalized with glucose oxidase (GOx).We have demonstrated the fabrication of AuNP-based biosensors using flexographic printing, which is ideal for low-cost, high-volume production of the devices.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP UK.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we have presented the use of flexographic printing techniques in the selective patterning of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto a substrate. Highly uniform coverage of AuNPs was selectively patterned on the substrate surface, which was subsequently used in the development of a glucose sensor. These AuNPs provide a biocompatible site for the attachment of enzymes and offer high sensitivity in the detection of glucose due to their large surface to volume ratio. The average size of the printed AuNPs is less than 60 nm. Glucose sensing tests were performed using printed carbon-AuNP electrodes functionalized with glucose oxidase (GOx). The results showed a high sensitivity of 5.52 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with a detection limit of 26 μM. We have demonstrated the fabrication of AuNP-based biosensors using flexographic printing, which is ideal for low-cost, high-volume production of the devices.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic diagram showing the functionalisation scheme. The scheme shows the major steps in the functionalisation scheme for AuNPs on carbon electrode. Starting with the printed carbon electrode AuNPs are printed and functionalized with cysteamine, glutaraldehyde and glucose oxidase, also included is a schematic of a fully prepared electrode for biosensing (left).
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Fig2: Schematic diagram showing the functionalisation scheme. The scheme shows the major steps in the functionalisation scheme for AuNPs on carbon electrode. Starting with the printed carbon electrode AuNPs are printed and functionalized with cysteamine, glutaraldehyde and glucose oxidase, also included is a schematic of a fully prepared electrode for biosensing (left).

Mentions: Flexographic printing was performed using an IGT F1 flexographic test printer (IGT Testing Systems, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). A schematic of the system is shown in Figure 1. The working electrode was prepared by first printing carbon ink onto a sheet of polyimide using the flexographic printing technique. After printing carbon onto the polyimide substrate, the samples were annealed at 150°C in an oven for 10 min. The polyimide, with printed carbon, was then cut into 1 cm × 2 cm sections for use as an electrode. The printed carbon sections were then placed back onto the flexographic printer for AuNP printing using the ink described previously. The printing parameters for flexographic printing of our ink were optimised as follows; printing force of 125 N, anilox force of 125 N, and speed of 0.6 m s−1. Samples were then annealed at 150°C for 10 min to dry and remove the residual PVP from the AuNPs. Patterning of the AuNPs onto the polyimide is possible, using the flexographic printing technique, through the use of patterned printing plates. A short length of tin-coated copper wire was then attached to the carbon electrode in an area where no AuNPs had been printed to allow an electrical connection between a sample and a potentiostat. The wire was attached using a conductive epoxy. Paraffin wax was then used to define a small window (~2 mm2) in the AuNP-coated carbon region for functionalisation. Cysteamine and glutaraldehyde were treated onto the AuNPs prior to the functionalisation of GOx. The sensing window was treated with 5 μl of 20 mM cysteamine for 30 min after which it was washed with DI water and dried using N2 gas. The sensing window was then exposed to 5 μl of 4% glutaraldehyde solution for 30 min and once again washed and dried as previous. The final step in the electrode preparation was to introduce GOx to the sensing window, where 5 μl of 7 mg ml−1 GOx was added to the window and left overnight to ensure its attachment to the electrode surface. The window was washed thoroughly with PBS and dried under N2. The printed carbon-AuNP-GOx electrode was then ready for electrochemical experiments. A schematic diagram of the working electrode fabrication process is shown in Figure 2.Figure 1


Direct patterning of gold nanoparticles using flexographic printing for biosensing applications.

Benson J, Fung CM, Lloyd JS, Deganello D, Smith NA, Teng KS - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Schematic diagram showing the functionalisation scheme. The scheme shows the major steps in the functionalisation scheme for AuNPs on carbon electrode. Starting with the printed carbon electrode AuNPs are printed and functionalized with cysteamine, glutaraldehyde and glucose oxidase, also included is a schematic of a fully prepared electrode for biosensing (left).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385249&req=5

Fig2: Schematic diagram showing the functionalisation scheme. The scheme shows the major steps in the functionalisation scheme for AuNPs on carbon electrode. Starting with the printed carbon electrode AuNPs are printed and functionalized with cysteamine, glutaraldehyde and glucose oxidase, also included is a schematic of a fully prepared electrode for biosensing (left).
Mentions: Flexographic printing was performed using an IGT F1 flexographic test printer (IGT Testing Systems, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). A schematic of the system is shown in Figure 1. The working electrode was prepared by first printing carbon ink onto a sheet of polyimide using the flexographic printing technique. After printing carbon onto the polyimide substrate, the samples were annealed at 150°C in an oven for 10 min. The polyimide, with printed carbon, was then cut into 1 cm × 2 cm sections for use as an electrode. The printed carbon sections were then placed back onto the flexographic printer for AuNP printing using the ink described previously. The printing parameters for flexographic printing of our ink were optimised as follows; printing force of 125 N, anilox force of 125 N, and speed of 0.6 m s−1. Samples were then annealed at 150°C for 10 min to dry and remove the residual PVP from the AuNPs. Patterning of the AuNPs onto the polyimide is possible, using the flexographic printing technique, through the use of patterned printing plates. A short length of tin-coated copper wire was then attached to the carbon electrode in an area where no AuNPs had been printed to allow an electrical connection between a sample and a potentiostat. The wire was attached using a conductive epoxy. Paraffin wax was then used to define a small window (~2 mm2) in the AuNP-coated carbon region for functionalisation. Cysteamine and glutaraldehyde were treated onto the AuNPs prior to the functionalisation of GOx. The sensing window was treated with 5 μl of 20 mM cysteamine for 30 min after which it was washed with DI water and dried using N2 gas. The sensing window was then exposed to 5 μl of 4% glutaraldehyde solution for 30 min and once again washed and dried as previous. The final step in the electrode preparation was to introduce GOx to the sensing window, where 5 μl of 7 mg ml−1 GOx was added to the window and left overnight to ensure its attachment to the electrode surface. The window was washed thoroughly with PBS and dried under N2. The printed carbon-AuNP-GOx electrode was then ready for electrochemical experiments. A schematic diagram of the working electrode fabrication process is shown in Figure 2.Figure 1

Bottom Line: The average size of the printed AuNPs is less than 60 nm.Glucose sensing tests were performed using printed carbon-AuNP electrodes functionalized with glucose oxidase (GOx).We have demonstrated the fabrication of AuNP-based biosensors using flexographic printing, which is ideal for low-cost, high-volume production of the devices.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP UK.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we have presented the use of flexographic printing techniques in the selective patterning of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto a substrate. Highly uniform coverage of AuNPs was selectively patterned on the substrate surface, which was subsequently used in the development of a glucose sensor. These AuNPs provide a biocompatible site for the attachment of enzymes and offer high sensitivity in the detection of glucose due to their large surface to volume ratio. The average size of the printed AuNPs is less than 60 nm. Glucose sensing tests were performed using printed carbon-AuNP electrodes functionalized with glucose oxidase (GOx). The results showed a high sensitivity of 5.52 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with a detection limit of 26 μM. We have demonstrated the fabrication of AuNP-based biosensors using flexographic printing, which is ideal for low-cost, high-volume production of the devices.

No MeSH data available.