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A new strategy for TiO2 whiskers mediated multi-mode cancer treatment.

Xu P, Wang R, Ouyang J, Chen B - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Bottom Line: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which functions as chemotherapeutic or adjuvantly chemotherapeutic agents has been drawing a great many eyeballs for its easy obtain and significant antitumor effects accompanied with less toxic and side effects.These results identify TiO2 Ws of good biocompatibility and photocatalytic activity.These results reveal that such modality combinations put forward a promising proposal in cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which functions as chemotherapeutic or adjuvantly chemotherapeutic agents has been drawing a great many eyeballs for its easy obtain and significant antitumor effects accompanied with less toxic and side effects. PDT (photodynamic therapy) utilizes the fact that certain compounds coined as photosensitizers, when exposed to light of a specific wavelength, are capable of generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide to kill cancer cells. Combinations of cancer therapeutic modalities are studied to improve the efficacy of treatment. This study aimed to explore a new strategy of coupling of titanium dioxide whiskers (TiO2 Ws) with the anticancer drug gambogic acid (GA) in photodynamic therapy. The nanocomposites were coined as GA-TiO2. The combination of TiO2 Ws with GA induced a remarkable enhancement in antitumor activity estimated by MTT assay, nuclear DAPI staining, and flow cytometry. Furthermore, the possible signaling pathway was explored by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay. These results identify TiO2 Ws of good biocompatibility and photocatalytic activity. In human leukemia cells (K562 cells), TiO2 Ws could obviously increase the intracellular concentration of GA and enhance its potential antitumor efficiency, suggesting that TiO2 Ws could act as an efficient drug delivery carrier targeting GA to carcinoma cells. Moreover, photodynamic GA-TiO2 nanocomposites could induce an evident reinforcement in antitumor activity with UV illumination. These results reveal that such modality combinations put forward a promising proposal in cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cytotoxic effect of GA or GA-TiO2nanocomposites with/no UV. Cytotoxic effect of GA or GA-TiO2 nanocomposites in the absence or presence of UV irradiation against K562 cells. Inset: the IC50 of GA and GA-TiO2 nanocomposites in the absence or presence of UV irradiation for K562 cell.
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Fig5: Cytotoxic effect of GA or GA-TiO2nanocomposites with/no UV. Cytotoxic effect of GA or GA-TiO2 nanocomposites in the absence or presence of UV irradiation against K562 cells. Inset: the IC50 of GA and GA-TiO2 nanocomposites in the absence or presence of UV irradiation for K562 cell.

Mentions: In the current study, TiO2 Ws could be ingested into cancer cells, so photocatalytic attack may occur inside the cancer cells [25]. To explore the possibility of TiO2-coated GA with UV as a strategy for comprehensive cancer treatment, the efficiency of GA-TiO2 composites under UV irradiation was investigated. It was obvious that there were no significant differences between the purple line and blue line in Figure 5, which represent GA with UV and GA only, respectively, indicating that UV irradiation itself only showed a slightly enhanced effect on K562 cells. MTT assay illustrated that UV irradiation could obviously increase the mortality of K562 cells upon incubation with GA-TiO2 nanocomposites than no UV irradiation, as shown in Figure 5 (green line). This finding demonstrates that despite the mortality effects on K562 cells induced by GA, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 Ws could enhance the inhibitation of growth on cells. The IC50 value (the half maximal inhibitory concentration of a substance) was determined from the dose–response relationship (Figure 5, inset). The IC50 value of free GA was 1.41 mg/mL for the cancer cells; GA with UV and GA-TiO2 composites could alter the IC50 value to 1.35 and 0.80 mg/mL, respectively. When target cells were treated with GA-TiO2 nanocomposites with UV, the IC50 value could even be reduced to 0.39 mg/mL. Considering that the serious side effects of GA are related to the high dose of it, the lower IC50 of GA-TiO2 nanocomposites and GA-TiO2 nanocomposites with UV irradiation improved the efficacy on cancer therapy without high concentration of GA and minimized its toxic side effects.Figure 5


A new strategy for TiO2 whiskers mediated multi-mode cancer treatment.

Xu P, Wang R, Ouyang J, Chen B - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Cytotoxic effect of GA or GA-TiO2nanocomposites with/no UV. Cytotoxic effect of GA or GA-TiO2 nanocomposites in the absence or presence of UV irradiation against K562 cells. Inset: the IC50 of GA and GA-TiO2 nanocomposites in the absence or presence of UV irradiation for K562 cell.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385221&req=5

Fig5: Cytotoxic effect of GA or GA-TiO2nanocomposites with/no UV. Cytotoxic effect of GA or GA-TiO2 nanocomposites in the absence or presence of UV irradiation against K562 cells. Inset: the IC50 of GA and GA-TiO2 nanocomposites in the absence or presence of UV irradiation for K562 cell.
Mentions: In the current study, TiO2 Ws could be ingested into cancer cells, so photocatalytic attack may occur inside the cancer cells [25]. To explore the possibility of TiO2-coated GA with UV as a strategy for comprehensive cancer treatment, the efficiency of GA-TiO2 composites under UV irradiation was investigated. It was obvious that there were no significant differences between the purple line and blue line in Figure 5, which represent GA with UV and GA only, respectively, indicating that UV irradiation itself only showed a slightly enhanced effect on K562 cells. MTT assay illustrated that UV irradiation could obviously increase the mortality of K562 cells upon incubation with GA-TiO2 nanocomposites than no UV irradiation, as shown in Figure 5 (green line). This finding demonstrates that despite the mortality effects on K562 cells induced by GA, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 Ws could enhance the inhibitation of growth on cells. The IC50 value (the half maximal inhibitory concentration of a substance) was determined from the dose–response relationship (Figure 5, inset). The IC50 value of free GA was 1.41 mg/mL for the cancer cells; GA with UV and GA-TiO2 composites could alter the IC50 value to 1.35 and 0.80 mg/mL, respectively. When target cells were treated with GA-TiO2 nanocomposites with UV, the IC50 value could even be reduced to 0.39 mg/mL. Considering that the serious side effects of GA are related to the high dose of it, the lower IC50 of GA-TiO2 nanocomposites and GA-TiO2 nanocomposites with UV irradiation improved the efficacy on cancer therapy without high concentration of GA and minimized its toxic side effects.Figure 5

Bottom Line: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which functions as chemotherapeutic or adjuvantly chemotherapeutic agents has been drawing a great many eyeballs for its easy obtain and significant antitumor effects accompanied with less toxic and side effects.These results identify TiO2 Ws of good biocompatibility and photocatalytic activity.These results reveal that such modality combinations put forward a promising proposal in cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which functions as chemotherapeutic or adjuvantly chemotherapeutic agents has been drawing a great many eyeballs for its easy obtain and significant antitumor effects accompanied with less toxic and side effects. PDT (photodynamic therapy) utilizes the fact that certain compounds coined as photosensitizers, when exposed to light of a specific wavelength, are capable of generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide to kill cancer cells. Combinations of cancer therapeutic modalities are studied to improve the efficacy of treatment. This study aimed to explore a new strategy of coupling of titanium dioxide whiskers (TiO2 Ws) with the anticancer drug gambogic acid (GA) in photodynamic therapy. The nanocomposites were coined as GA-TiO2. The combination of TiO2 Ws with GA induced a remarkable enhancement in antitumor activity estimated by MTT assay, nuclear DAPI staining, and flow cytometry. Furthermore, the possible signaling pathway was explored by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay. These results identify TiO2 Ws of good biocompatibility and photocatalytic activity. In human leukemia cells (K562 cells), TiO2 Ws could obviously increase the intracellular concentration of GA and enhance its potential antitumor efficiency, suggesting that TiO2 Ws could act as an efficient drug delivery carrier targeting GA to carcinoma cells. Moreover, photodynamic GA-TiO2 nanocomposites could induce an evident reinforcement in antitumor activity with UV illumination. These results reveal that such modality combinations put forward a promising proposal in cancer therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus