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Comparison of (11)C-4'-thiothymidine, (11)C-methionine, and (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of active lesions of multiple myeloma.

Okasaki M, Kubota K, Minamimoto R, Miyata Y, Morooka M, Ito K, Ishiwata K, Toyohara J, Inoue T, Hirai R, Hagiwara S, Miwa A - Ann Nucl Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Among the 55 lytic lesions, the (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST findings tended to reveal more positive findings than the (18)F-FDG findings.The addition of (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST to (18)F-FDG when performing PET/CT enabled clearer evaluations of equivocal lesions.Based on cytological diagnostic criteria, (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST were more sensitive than (18)F-FDG for the detection of active lesions. (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST were more useful than (18)F-FDG for the detection of active lesions, especially during the early stage of disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Nuclear Medicine, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1, Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8655, Japan, epiciel324@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate the possibility of using (11)C-methionine ((11)C-MET) and (11)C-4'-thiothymidine ((11)C-4DST) whole-body PET/CT for the imaging of amino acid metabolism and DNA synthesis, respectively, when searching for bone marrow involvement in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and to compare these findings with those for (18)F-FDG PET/CT and aspiration cytology.

Methods: A total of 64 patients with MM, solitary plasmacytoma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, or an unspecified diagnosis were prospectively enrolled. All the patients underwent three whole-body PET/CT examinations within a period of 1 week. First, the tracer accumulation was visually evaluated as positive, equivocal, or negative for 55 focal lytic lesions visualized using CT in 24 patients. Second, the percentages of marrow plasma cells as calculated using a bone marrow aspiration smear and tracer accumulation were evaluated in the posterior iliac crests of 36 patients.

Results: Among the 55 lytic lesions, the (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST findings tended to reveal more positive findings than the (18)F-FDG findings. Based on the standard criteria for the diagnosis of active myeloma using the percentage of marrow plasma cells, significant differences were found between the (18)F-FDG and (11)C-MET findings and between the (18)F-FDG and (11)C-4DST findings, but no significant difference was observed between the (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST findings.

Conclusion: The addition of (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST to (18)F-FDG when performing PET/CT enabled clearer evaluations of equivocal lesions. Based on cytological diagnostic criteria, (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST were more sensitive than (18)F-FDG for the detection of active lesions. (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST were more useful than (18)F-FDG for the detection of active lesions, especially during the early stage of disease.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Fusion images of a CT, b18F-FDG, c11C-MET, and d11C-4DST obtained in a 79-year-old woman with multiple myeloma (IgG-κ). The arrow shows an osteolytic lesion. 11C-MET PET/CT and 11C-4DST PET/CT detected activity in the skull lesion, whereas 18F-FDG PET/CT could not detect any activity because of normal brain accumulation
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Fig2: Fusion images of a CT, b18F-FDG, c11C-MET, and d11C-4DST obtained in a 79-year-old woman with multiple myeloma (IgG-κ). The arrow shows an osteolytic lesion. 11C-MET PET/CT and 11C-4DST PET/CT detected activity in the skull lesion, whereas 18F-FDG PET/CT could not detect any activity because of normal brain accumulation

Mentions: 18F-FDG was rarely able to detect skull lesions because of the high physiological accumulation in the brain, whereas 11C-MET and 11C-4DST were capable of clearly detecting skull lesions because of their low accumulation in the brain (Fig. 2). A typical MM patient with multiple active lesions is sh own in Fig. 3. 11C-MET and 11C-4DST detected positive lesions, whereas 18F-FDG detected an equivocal lesion. The lesion was positive when evaluated using MRI and negative when evaluated using CT (Fig. 4).Fig. 2


Comparison of (11)C-4'-thiothymidine, (11)C-methionine, and (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of active lesions of multiple myeloma.

Okasaki M, Kubota K, Minamimoto R, Miyata Y, Morooka M, Ito K, Ishiwata K, Toyohara J, Inoue T, Hirai R, Hagiwara S, Miwa A - Ann Nucl Med (2014)

Fusion images of a CT, b18F-FDG, c11C-MET, and d11C-4DST obtained in a 79-year-old woman with multiple myeloma (IgG-κ). The arrow shows an osteolytic lesion. 11C-MET PET/CT and 11C-4DST PET/CT detected activity in the skull lesion, whereas 18F-FDG PET/CT could not detect any activity because of normal brain accumulation
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385147&req=5

Fig2: Fusion images of a CT, b18F-FDG, c11C-MET, and d11C-4DST obtained in a 79-year-old woman with multiple myeloma (IgG-κ). The arrow shows an osteolytic lesion. 11C-MET PET/CT and 11C-4DST PET/CT detected activity in the skull lesion, whereas 18F-FDG PET/CT could not detect any activity because of normal brain accumulation
Mentions: 18F-FDG was rarely able to detect skull lesions because of the high physiological accumulation in the brain, whereas 11C-MET and 11C-4DST were capable of clearly detecting skull lesions because of their low accumulation in the brain (Fig. 2). A typical MM patient with multiple active lesions is sh own in Fig. 3. 11C-MET and 11C-4DST detected positive lesions, whereas 18F-FDG detected an equivocal lesion. The lesion was positive when evaluated using MRI and negative when evaluated using CT (Fig. 4).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Among the 55 lytic lesions, the (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST findings tended to reveal more positive findings than the (18)F-FDG findings.The addition of (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST to (18)F-FDG when performing PET/CT enabled clearer evaluations of equivocal lesions.Based on cytological diagnostic criteria, (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST were more sensitive than (18)F-FDG for the detection of active lesions. (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST were more useful than (18)F-FDG for the detection of active lesions, especially during the early stage of disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Nuclear Medicine, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1, Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8655, Japan, epiciel324@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate the possibility of using (11)C-methionine ((11)C-MET) and (11)C-4'-thiothymidine ((11)C-4DST) whole-body PET/CT for the imaging of amino acid metabolism and DNA synthesis, respectively, when searching for bone marrow involvement in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and to compare these findings with those for (18)F-FDG PET/CT and aspiration cytology.

Methods: A total of 64 patients with MM, solitary plasmacytoma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, or an unspecified diagnosis were prospectively enrolled. All the patients underwent three whole-body PET/CT examinations within a period of 1 week. First, the tracer accumulation was visually evaluated as positive, equivocal, or negative for 55 focal lytic lesions visualized using CT in 24 patients. Second, the percentages of marrow plasma cells as calculated using a bone marrow aspiration smear and tracer accumulation were evaluated in the posterior iliac crests of 36 patients.

Results: Among the 55 lytic lesions, the (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST findings tended to reveal more positive findings than the (18)F-FDG findings. Based on the standard criteria for the diagnosis of active myeloma using the percentage of marrow plasma cells, significant differences were found between the (18)F-FDG and (11)C-MET findings and between the (18)F-FDG and (11)C-4DST findings, but no significant difference was observed between the (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST findings.

Conclusion: The addition of (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST to (18)F-FDG when performing PET/CT enabled clearer evaluations of equivocal lesions. Based on cytological diagnostic criteria, (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST were more sensitive than (18)F-FDG for the detection of active lesions. (11)C-MET and (11)C-4DST were more useful than (18)F-FDG for the detection of active lesions, especially during the early stage of disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus