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High-performance flexible Ag nanowire electrode with low-temperature atomic-layer-deposition fabrication of conductive-bridging ZnO film.

Duan YH, Duan Y, Chen P, Tao Y, Yang YQ, Zhao Y - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Bottom Line: ZnO effectively fills in the voids of the AgNW mesh electrode, which is thus able to contact to the device all over the active area, to allow for efficient charge extraction/injection.Hole-only devices are fabricated to certify the functionality of the low-temperature ZnO film.Finally, we confirm that the ZnO film grown at a low temperature bring a significant contribution to the performance of the modified AgNW anode.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of electronic science and engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Jilin, 130012 China.

ABSTRACT
As material for flexible transparent electrodes for organic photoelectric devices, the silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been widely studied. In this work, we propose a hybrid flexible anode with photopolymer substrate, which is composed of spin-coating-processed AgNW meshes and of zinc oxide (ZnO) prepared by low-temperature (60°C) atomic layer deposition. ZnO effectively fills in the voids of the AgNW mesh electrode, which is thus able to contact to the device all over the active area, to allow for efficient charge extraction/injection. Furthermore, ZnO grown by low temperature mainly relies on hole conduction to make the anode play a better role. Hole-only devices are fabricated to certify the functionality of the low-temperature ZnO film. Finally, we confirm that the ZnO film grown at a low temperature bring a significant contribution to the performance of the modified AgNW anode.

No MeSH data available.


Precursor pulse of Zn(C2H5)2and H2O during ZnO film deposition in ALD process.
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Fig2: Precursor pulse of Zn(C2H5)2and H2O during ZnO film deposition in ALD process.

Mentions: We grow the ZnO thin films in the ALD process at an extremely low temperature using the LabNano 9100 ALD system by Ensure Nanotech Inc. (Beijing, China). The chamber pressure is 3 × 10−2 Pa. Zn(C2H5)2 and H2O are used as the precursors of Zn and O, respectively. The reaction is the following:\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \mathrm{Z}\mathrm{n}{\left({\mathrm{C}}_2{\mathrm{H}}_5\right)}_2 + {\mathrm{H}}_2\mathrm{O}\to \mathrm{Z}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{O} + 2{\mathrm{C}}_2{\mathrm{H}}_6 $$\end{document}ZnC2H52+H2O→ZnO+2C2H6where high purity nitrogen is used as the purging gas. The warm-wall reactor is operated at the extremely low temperature of 60°C. Low-temperature growth is also a critical factor, which limits the processes of spinodal decomposition and foreign-phase formation when transition metal atoms are incorporated into the ZnO lattice [25,26]. We concentrate on the possibility of controlling the free-carrier concentration by lowering the growth temperature [22]. Here, we apply a long purging time after the H2O precursor of 200 s, with the purpose of making the reaction more complete. The detailed growth process is shown in Figure 2. The deposition process is set to 50 cycles, each cycle being 0.9 Å. ZnO thin films are grown on the Si substrate and the photopolymer substrate containing AgNW. The advantage of ZnO film grown on peeled off AgNW is that the ZnO film is able to completely fill the voids in the AgNW anode, also that the anode is able to contact the device all over the active area, in order to allow for efficient charge extraction/injection. The X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is performed using a Scienta ESCA 200 spectrometer (VG Scienta, Uppsala, Sweden) in ultrahigh vacuum with a base pressure of 1 × 10−8 Pa. The measurement chamber is equipped with a monochromatic Al KR X-ray source to afford photons with 1,486.6 eV. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is performed using a field-emission SEM (JSM-6700F, JEOL, Tokyo, Japan) operated at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV. The surface morphology and root mean square (RMS) of ZnO film on Si substrate is measured with a Veeco atomic force microscope (AFM; Bruker Corporation, Billerica, MA, USA). The sheet resistance of anodes is measured by a four-probe ST-21 system (Janis, Woburn, MA, USA). A Kyoto UV-2550 (Shimadzu Scientific Instruments, Kyoto, Japan) measures the transmittance.Figure 2


High-performance flexible Ag nanowire electrode with low-temperature atomic-layer-deposition fabrication of conductive-bridging ZnO film.

Duan YH, Duan Y, Chen P, Tao Y, Yang YQ, Zhao Y - Nanoscale Res Lett (2015)

Precursor pulse of Zn(C2H5)2and H2O during ZnO film deposition in ALD process.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385141&req=5

Fig2: Precursor pulse of Zn(C2H5)2and H2O during ZnO film deposition in ALD process.
Mentions: We grow the ZnO thin films in the ALD process at an extremely low temperature using the LabNano 9100 ALD system by Ensure Nanotech Inc. (Beijing, China). The chamber pressure is 3 × 10−2 Pa. Zn(C2H5)2 and H2O are used as the precursors of Zn and O, respectively. The reaction is the following:\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \mathrm{Z}\mathrm{n}{\left({\mathrm{C}}_2{\mathrm{H}}_5\right)}_2 + {\mathrm{H}}_2\mathrm{O}\to \mathrm{Z}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{O} + 2{\mathrm{C}}_2{\mathrm{H}}_6 $$\end{document}ZnC2H52+H2O→ZnO+2C2H6where high purity nitrogen is used as the purging gas. The warm-wall reactor is operated at the extremely low temperature of 60°C. Low-temperature growth is also a critical factor, which limits the processes of spinodal decomposition and foreign-phase formation when transition metal atoms are incorporated into the ZnO lattice [25,26]. We concentrate on the possibility of controlling the free-carrier concentration by lowering the growth temperature [22]. Here, we apply a long purging time after the H2O precursor of 200 s, with the purpose of making the reaction more complete. The detailed growth process is shown in Figure 2. The deposition process is set to 50 cycles, each cycle being 0.9 Å. ZnO thin films are grown on the Si substrate and the photopolymer substrate containing AgNW. The advantage of ZnO film grown on peeled off AgNW is that the ZnO film is able to completely fill the voids in the AgNW anode, also that the anode is able to contact the device all over the active area, in order to allow for efficient charge extraction/injection. The X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is performed using a Scienta ESCA 200 spectrometer (VG Scienta, Uppsala, Sweden) in ultrahigh vacuum with a base pressure of 1 × 10−8 Pa. The measurement chamber is equipped with a monochromatic Al KR X-ray source to afford photons with 1,486.6 eV. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is performed using a field-emission SEM (JSM-6700F, JEOL, Tokyo, Japan) operated at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV. The surface morphology and root mean square (RMS) of ZnO film on Si substrate is measured with a Veeco atomic force microscope (AFM; Bruker Corporation, Billerica, MA, USA). The sheet resistance of anodes is measured by a four-probe ST-21 system (Janis, Woburn, MA, USA). A Kyoto UV-2550 (Shimadzu Scientific Instruments, Kyoto, Japan) measures the transmittance.Figure 2

Bottom Line: ZnO effectively fills in the voids of the AgNW mesh electrode, which is thus able to contact to the device all over the active area, to allow for efficient charge extraction/injection.Hole-only devices are fabricated to certify the functionality of the low-temperature ZnO film.Finally, we confirm that the ZnO film grown at a low temperature bring a significant contribution to the performance of the modified AgNW anode.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of electronic science and engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Jilin, 130012 China.

ABSTRACT
As material for flexible transparent electrodes for organic photoelectric devices, the silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been widely studied. In this work, we propose a hybrid flexible anode with photopolymer substrate, which is composed of spin-coating-processed AgNW meshes and of zinc oxide (ZnO) prepared by low-temperature (60°C) atomic layer deposition. ZnO effectively fills in the voids of the AgNW mesh electrode, which is thus able to contact to the device all over the active area, to allow for efficient charge extraction/injection. Furthermore, ZnO grown by low temperature mainly relies on hole conduction to make the anode play a better role. Hole-only devices are fabricated to certify the functionality of the low-temperature ZnO film. Finally, we confirm that the ZnO film grown at a low temperature bring a significant contribution to the performance of the modified AgNW anode.

No MeSH data available.