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Outer membrane vesicles - offensive weapons or good Samaritans?

Olsen I, Amano A - J Oral Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, OMVs represent a distinct bacterial secretion pathway selecting and protecting their cargo, and they can even be good Samaritans providing nutrients to the gut microbiota maintaining commensal homeostasis beneficial to the host.The versatility in functions of these nanostructures is remarkable and includes both defense and offense.They may even represent new ways of selective drug treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; ingar.olsen@odont.uio.no.

ABSTRACT
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Gram-negative bacteria were first considered as artifacts and were followed with disbelief and bad reputation. Later, their existence was accepted and they became characterized as bacterial bombs, virulence bullets, and even decoys. Today, we know that OMVs also can be involved in cell-cell signaling/communication and be mediators of immune regulation and cause disease protection. Furthermore, OMVs represent a distinct bacterial secretion pathway selecting and protecting their cargo, and they can even be good Samaritans providing nutrients to the gut microbiota maintaining commensal homeostasis beneficial to the host. The versatility in functions of these nanostructures is remarkable and includes both defense and offense. The broad spectrum of usability does not stop with that, as it now seems that OMVs can be used as vaccines and adjuvants or vehicles engineered for drug treatment of emerging and new diseases not only caused by bacteria but also by virus. They may even represent new ways of selective drug treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Entry of OMVs isolated from P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 into immortalized gingival epithelial cells. The cells were incubated with OMVs (30 µg/ml) for 15 min, then further incubated for the indicated times. For fluorescence microscopy, the cells were processed for staining for OMVs (green) and actin (Alexa Fluor 568-conjugated phalloidin red).
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Figure 0002: Entry of OMVs isolated from P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 into immortalized gingival epithelial cells. The cells were incubated with OMVs (30 µg/ml) for 15 min, then further incubated for the indicated times. For fluorescence microscopy, the cells were processed for staining for OMVs (green) and actin (Alexa Fluor 568-conjugated phalloidin red).

Mentions: P. gingivalis OMVs swiftly adhered to human gingival epithelial cells in a fimbriae-dependent manner, and then entered via a lipid rafts-dependent endocytic pathway through the assembly of actin filaments (Fig. 2). The OMVs were routed to early endosomes and thereafter sorted to proteolytic lysosomes (17). Following cell entry, P. gingivalis OMV-associated gingipains degraded cellular functional molecules causing cellular impairment, which included the cellular transferrin receptor and paxillin (integrin-related signaling molecule)/focal adhesion kinase. This caused depletion of intracellular transferrin and inhibition of cellular migration (17).


Outer membrane vesicles - offensive weapons or good Samaritans?

Olsen I, Amano A - J Oral Microbiol (2015)

Entry of OMVs isolated from P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 into immortalized gingival epithelial cells. The cells were incubated with OMVs (30 µg/ml) for 15 min, then further incubated for the indicated times. For fluorescence microscopy, the cells were processed for staining for OMVs (green) and actin (Alexa Fluor 568-conjugated phalloidin red).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385126&req=5

Figure 0002: Entry of OMVs isolated from P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 into immortalized gingival epithelial cells. The cells were incubated with OMVs (30 µg/ml) for 15 min, then further incubated for the indicated times. For fluorescence microscopy, the cells were processed for staining for OMVs (green) and actin (Alexa Fluor 568-conjugated phalloidin red).
Mentions: P. gingivalis OMVs swiftly adhered to human gingival epithelial cells in a fimbriae-dependent manner, and then entered via a lipid rafts-dependent endocytic pathway through the assembly of actin filaments (Fig. 2). The OMVs were routed to early endosomes and thereafter sorted to proteolytic lysosomes (17). Following cell entry, P. gingivalis OMV-associated gingipains degraded cellular functional molecules causing cellular impairment, which included the cellular transferrin receptor and paxillin (integrin-related signaling molecule)/focal adhesion kinase. This caused depletion of intracellular transferrin and inhibition of cellular migration (17).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, OMVs represent a distinct bacterial secretion pathway selecting and protecting their cargo, and they can even be good Samaritans providing nutrients to the gut microbiota maintaining commensal homeostasis beneficial to the host.The versatility in functions of these nanostructures is remarkable and includes both defense and offense.They may even represent new ways of selective drug treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; ingar.olsen@odont.uio.no.

ABSTRACT
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Gram-negative bacteria were first considered as artifacts and were followed with disbelief and bad reputation. Later, their existence was accepted and they became characterized as bacterial bombs, virulence bullets, and even decoys. Today, we know that OMVs also can be involved in cell-cell signaling/communication and be mediators of immune regulation and cause disease protection. Furthermore, OMVs represent a distinct bacterial secretion pathway selecting and protecting their cargo, and they can even be good Samaritans providing nutrients to the gut microbiota maintaining commensal homeostasis beneficial to the host. The versatility in functions of these nanostructures is remarkable and includes both defense and offense. The broad spectrum of usability does not stop with that, as it now seems that OMVs can be used as vaccines and adjuvants or vehicles engineered for drug treatment of emerging and new diseases not only caused by bacteria but also by virus. They may even represent new ways of selective drug treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus