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Long-term follow-up of herpetic non-necrotizing retinopathy with occlusive retinal vasculitis and neovascularization.

Albert K, Masset M, Bonnet S, Willermain F, Caspers L - J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect (2015)

Bottom Line: Acyclovir was then added and immunosuppressive tapered and eventually stopped resulting in a resolution of vasculitis.Therapeutic and diagnostic vitrectomy was performed, and PCR was found to be positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV) in a vitreous specimen.A good response was obtained on oral antiviral therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Rue Haute 322, 1000 Brussels, Belgium ; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Brugmann, Place Arthur Van Gehuchten 4, 1020 Brussels, Belgium.

ABSTRACT

Background: Herpetic necrotizing retinitis is a well-recognized entity. A few cases of herpetic non-necrotizing retinitis were previously reported.

Findings: We retrospectively report two cases of herpetic non-necrotizing retinopathy with a long follow-up. A 19-year-old woman presented with a bilateral diffuse occlusive retinal vasculitis, peripheral neovascularization, and no signs of retinal necrosis. Long-lasting immunosuppressive treatment failed to control the vasculitis until herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the aqueous. Acyclovir was then added and immunosuppressive tapered and eventually stopped resulting in a resolution of vasculitis. Only two relapses occurred during the next 6 years and responded rapidly to oral acyclovir. An 11-year-old boy presented with unilateral scar of stromal keratitis, severe vitritis, and optic disc neovascularization, followed 6 weeks later by peripheral occlusive retinal vasculitis. Therapeutic and diagnostic vitrectomy was performed, and PCR was found to be positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV) in a vitreous specimen. The inflammation responded to oral acyclovir therapy. Recurrence of anterior uveitis with iris depigmentation occurred 4 months after treatment was arrested. After 4 years, he presented again with a recurrence of anterior inflammation and cystoid macular edema (CME). No sign of inflammation was seen for the next 10 years.

Conclusions: These rare cases support the possible role of herpes viruses (HSV or VZV) in occlusive vasculitis without retinal necrosis. PCR was useful to raise the diagnosis and to adapt the treatment. A good response was obtained on oral antiviral therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Patient 1: fluorescein angiography at presentation. Diffuse vasculitis and peripheral ischemia of the left eye.
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Fig2: Patient 1: fluorescein angiography at presentation. Diffuse vasculitis and peripheral ischemia of the left eye.

Mentions: Visual acuity (VA) was 20/20 in both eyes. Anterior segment examination was normal. Fundus examination showed severe bilateral occlusive vasculitis (periarteritis and periphlebitis) with intraretinal hemorrhages and peripheral neovascularization. A diffuse vitreal hemorrhage was observed in the right eye while it was more preretinal in the inferior part of left eye. There was no sign of retinal necrosis (Figures 1 and 2).Figure 1


Long-term follow-up of herpetic non-necrotizing retinopathy with occlusive retinal vasculitis and neovascularization.

Albert K, Masset M, Bonnet S, Willermain F, Caspers L - J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect (2015)

Patient 1: fluorescein angiography at presentation. Diffuse vasculitis and peripheral ischemia of the left eye.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4385048&req=5

Fig2: Patient 1: fluorescein angiography at presentation. Diffuse vasculitis and peripheral ischemia of the left eye.
Mentions: Visual acuity (VA) was 20/20 in both eyes. Anterior segment examination was normal. Fundus examination showed severe bilateral occlusive vasculitis (periarteritis and periphlebitis) with intraretinal hemorrhages and peripheral neovascularization. A diffuse vitreal hemorrhage was observed in the right eye while it was more preretinal in the inferior part of left eye. There was no sign of retinal necrosis (Figures 1 and 2).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Acyclovir was then added and immunosuppressive tapered and eventually stopped resulting in a resolution of vasculitis.Therapeutic and diagnostic vitrectomy was performed, and PCR was found to be positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV) in a vitreous specimen.A good response was obtained on oral antiviral therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Rue Haute 322, 1000 Brussels, Belgium ; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Brugmann, Place Arthur Van Gehuchten 4, 1020 Brussels, Belgium.

ABSTRACT

Background: Herpetic necrotizing retinitis is a well-recognized entity. A few cases of herpetic non-necrotizing retinitis were previously reported.

Findings: We retrospectively report two cases of herpetic non-necrotizing retinopathy with a long follow-up. A 19-year-old woman presented with a bilateral diffuse occlusive retinal vasculitis, peripheral neovascularization, and no signs of retinal necrosis. Long-lasting immunosuppressive treatment failed to control the vasculitis until herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the aqueous. Acyclovir was then added and immunosuppressive tapered and eventually stopped resulting in a resolution of vasculitis. Only two relapses occurred during the next 6 years and responded rapidly to oral acyclovir. An 11-year-old boy presented with unilateral scar of stromal keratitis, severe vitritis, and optic disc neovascularization, followed 6 weeks later by peripheral occlusive retinal vasculitis. Therapeutic and diagnostic vitrectomy was performed, and PCR was found to be positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV) in a vitreous specimen. The inflammation responded to oral acyclovir therapy. Recurrence of anterior uveitis with iris depigmentation occurred 4 months after treatment was arrested. After 4 years, he presented again with a recurrence of anterior inflammation and cystoid macular edema (CME). No sign of inflammation was seen for the next 10 years.

Conclusions: These rare cases support the possible role of herpes viruses (HSV or VZV) in occlusive vasculitis without retinal necrosis. PCR was useful to raise the diagnosis and to adapt the treatment. A good response was obtained on oral antiviral therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus