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Three-dimensional methodology for photogrammetric acquisition of the soft tissues of the face: a new clinical-instrumental protocol.

Deli R, Galantucci LM, Laino A, D'Alessio R, Di Gioia E, Savastano C, Lavecchia F, Percoco G - Prog Orthod (2013)

Bottom Line: The analysis was carried out according to a new clinical-instrumental protocol that comprises four distinct phases: (1) setup of portable equipment in the space in which field analysis will be performed, (2) preparation of the subject and spatial positioning, (3) scanning of the subject with different facial expressions, and (4) treatment and processing of data.The protocol was tested on a sample comprising 66 female subjects (64 Caucasian, 1 Ethiopian, and 1 Brazilian) who were the finalists of an Italian national beauty contest in 2010.This standardization allows the mapping of the subjects to be carried out following the same conditions in a reliable and fast process for all of the subjects scanned.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Studio Associato di Odontoiatria dei Dottori Di Gioia, Bari 70122, Italy. eliana.digioia@teletu.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study is to define an acquisition protocol that is clear, precise, repeatable, simple, fast and that is useful for analysis of the anthropometric characteristics of the soft tissue of the face.

Methods: The analysis was carried out according to a new clinical-instrumental protocol that comprises four distinct phases: (1) setup of portable equipment in the space in which field analysis will be performed, (2) preparation of the subject and spatial positioning, (3) scanning of the subject with different facial expressions, and (4) treatment and processing of data. The protocol was tested on a sample comprising 66 female subjects (64 Caucasian, 1 Ethiopian, and 1 Brazilian) who were the finalists of an Italian national beauty contest in 2010. To illustrate the potential of the method, we report here the measurements and full analysis that were carried out on the facial model of one of the subjects who was scanned.

Results: This new protocol for the acquisition of faces is shown to be fast (phase 1, about 1 h; phase 2, about 1.5 min; phase 3, about 1.5 min; phase 4, about 15 min), simple (phases 1 to 3 requiring a short operator training period; only phase 4 requires expert operators), repeatable (with direct palpation of anatomical landmarks and marking of their positions on the face, the problem of identification of these same landmarks on the digital model is solved), reliable and precise (average precision of measurements, 0.5 to 0.6 mm over the entire surface of the face).

Conclusions: This standardization allows the mapping of the subjects to be carried out following the same conditions in a reliable and fast process for all of the subjects scanned.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Selection of the anthropometric landmarks [28–32].
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Fig4: Selection of the anthropometric landmarks [28–32].

Mentions: Phase 2: preparation of the face to be mapped. The face must be free of make-up, with the hair back, to clearly and completely expose the parts of the face to be mapped and the natural texture of the skin. An operator identifies the anatomical skin landmarks on the face through direct method of inspection and palpation. In the present study, 33 landmarks were used, as selected from those according to Sforza et al. and Swennen and Farkas [28–32], and as illustrated in Figure 4. These were then marked by the same operator using hypoallergenic eyeliner to more easily locate the positions of these various anatomical landmarks (Figure 5). The operator then applies three especially made hypoallergenic coded targets to the face at points N’, T_dx, and T_sx. The main skin landmarks used are [29, 33–35] midpoints (trichion (Tr), glabella (G), skin nasion (N’), pronasal (Prn), subnasal (Sn), labialis superior (Ls), labial inferior (Li), sub labialis (Sl), skin pogonion (Pg’), skin menton (Me’)) and bilateral points (upper orbital (Os), frontotemporal (Ft), endocanthion (En), exocanthion (Ex), chresta philtri (Chp), cheilion (Ch), tragion (T’), nasal wing crest (Ac), skin antegonial point (Go’)).


Three-dimensional methodology for photogrammetric acquisition of the soft tissues of the face: a new clinical-instrumental protocol.

Deli R, Galantucci LM, Laino A, D'Alessio R, Di Gioia E, Savastano C, Lavecchia F, Percoco G - Prog Orthod (2013)

Selection of the anthropometric landmarks [28–32].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384937&req=5

Fig4: Selection of the anthropometric landmarks [28–32].
Mentions: Phase 2: preparation of the face to be mapped. The face must be free of make-up, with the hair back, to clearly and completely expose the parts of the face to be mapped and the natural texture of the skin. An operator identifies the anatomical skin landmarks on the face through direct method of inspection and palpation. In the present study, 33 landmarks were used, as selected from those according to Sforza et al. and Swennen and Farkas [28–32], and as illustrated in Figure 4. These were then marked by the same operator using hypoallergenic eyeliner to more easily locate the positions of these various anatomical landmarks (Figure 5). The operator then applies three especially made hypoallergenic coded targets to the face at points N’, T_dx, and T_sx. The main skin landmarks used are [29, 33–35] midpoints (trichion (Tr), glabella (G), skin nasion (N’), pronasal (Prn), subnasal (Sn), labialis superior (Ls), labial inferior (Li), sub labialis (Sl), skin pogonion (Pg’), skin menton (Me’)) and bilateral points (upper orbital (Os), frontotemporal (Ft), endocanthion (En), exocanthion (Ex), chresta philtri (Chp), cheilion (Ch), tragion (T’), nasal wing crest (Ac), skin antegonial point (Go’)).

Bottom Line: The analysis was carried out according to a new clinical-instrumental protocol that comprises four distinct phases: (1) setup of portable equipment in the space in which field analysis will be performed, (2) preparation of the subject and spatial positioning, (3) scanning of the subject with different facial expressions, and (4) treatment and processing of data.The protocol was tested on a sample comprising 66 female subjects (64 Caucasian, 1 Ethiopian, and 1 Brazilian) who were the finalists of an Italian national beauty contest in 2010.This standardization allows the mapping of the subjects to be carried out following the same conditions in a reliable and fast process for all of the subjects scanned.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Studio Associato di Odontoiatria dei Dottori Di Gioia, Bari 70122, Italy. eliana.digioia@teletu.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study is to define an acquisition protocol that is clear, precise, repeatable, simple, fast and that is useful for analysis of the anthropometric characteristics of the soft tissue of the face.

Methods: The analysis was carried out according to a new clinical-instrumental protocol that comprises four distinct phases: (1) setup of portable equipment in the space in which field analysis will be performed, (2) preparation of the subject and spatial positioning, (3) scanning of the subject with different facial expressions, and (4) treatment and processing of data. The protocol was tested on a sample comprising 66 female subjects (64 Caucasian, 1 Ethiopian, and 1 Brazilian) who were the finalists of an Italian national beauty contest in 2010. To illustrate the potential of the method, we report here the measurements and full analysis that were carried out on the facial model of one of the subjects who was scanned.

Results: This new protocol for the acquisition of faces is shown to be fast (phase 1, about 1 h; phase 2, about 1.5 min; phase 3, about 1.5 min; phase 4, about 15 min), simple (phases 1 to 3 requiring a short operator training period; only phase 4 requires expert operators), repeatable (with direct palpation of anatomical landmarks and marking of their positions on the face, the problem of identification of these same landmarks on the digital model is solved), reliable and precise (average precision of measurements, 0.5 to 0.6 mm over the entire surface of the face).

Conclusions: This standardization allows the mapping of the subjects to be carried out following the same conditions in a reliable and fast process for all of the subjects scanned.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus