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Three-dimensional methodology for photogrammetric acquisition of the soft tissues of the face: a new clinical-instrumental protocol.

Deli R, Galantucci LM, Laino A, D'Alessio R, Di Gioia E, Savastano C, Lavecchia F, Percoco G - Prog Orthod (2013)

Bottom Line: The analysis was carried out according to a new clinical-instrumental protocol that comprises four distinct phases: (1) setup of portable equipment in the space in which field analysis will be performed, (2) preparation of the subject and spatial positioning, (3) scanning of the subject with different facial expressions, and (4) treatment and processing of data.The protocol was tested on a sample comprising 66 female subjects (64 Caucasian, 1 Ethiopian, and 1 Brazilian) who were the finalists of an Italian national beauty contest in 2010.This standardization allows the mapping of the subjects to be carried out following the same conditions in a reliable and fast process for all of the subjects scanned.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Studio Associato di Odontoiatria dei Dottori Di Gioia, Bari 70122, Italy. eliana.digioia@teletu.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study is to define an acquisition protocol that is clear, precise, repeatable, simple, fast and that is useful for analysis of the anthropometric characteristics of the soft tissue of the face.

Methods: The analysis was carried out according to a new clinical-instrumental protocol that comprises four distinct phases: (1) setup of portable equipment in the space in which field analysis will be performed, (2) preparation of the subject and spatial positioning, (3) scanning of the subject with different facial expressions, and (4) treatment and processing of data. The protocol was tested on a sample comprising 66 female subjects (64 Caucasian, 1 Ethiopian, and 1 Brazilian) who were the finalists of an Italian national beauty contest in 2010. To illustrate the potential of the method, we report here the measurements and full analysis that were carried out on the facial model of one of the subjects who was scanned.

Results: This new protocol for the acquisition of faces is shown to be fast (phase 1, about 1 h; phase 2, about 1.5 min; phase 3, about 1.5 min; phase 4, about 15 min), simple (phases 1 to 3 requiring a short operator training period; only phase 4 requires expert operators), repeatable (with direct palpation of anatomical landmarks and marking of their positions on the face, the problem of identification of these same landmarks on the digital model is solved), reliable and precise (average precision of measurements, 0.5 to 0.6 mm over the entire surface of the face).

Conclusions: This standardization allows the mapping of the subjects to be carried out following the same conditions in a reliable and fast process for all of the subjects scanned.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The principle of triangulation as used for digital close-range photogrammetry. CS2 and CS3, camera stations; h, α, β, distance and angles between the cameras; b, calculated z distance of the single point from the cameras.
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Fig1: The principle of triangulation as used for digital close-range photogrammetry. CS2 and CS3, camera stations; h, α, β, distance and angles between the cameras; b, calculated z distance of the single point from the cameras.

Mentions: There are various methods for the acquisition of data relating to the shape of a 3D object [3–6]. Digital close-range photogrammetry is suitable for use in medicine. The 3D information is obtained through the acquisition and comparison of a number of specific photographic images [7–9] that make use of the principle of triangulation, as shown schematically in Figure 1. For each couple of camera stations (CS2, CS3) rigidly positioned in the space, for each corresponding point P(x, y) in the two images, it is possible to calculate the third coordinate z as the value of b in the triangle, knowing the distance and angles between the cameras (h, α, β).Figure 1


Three-dimensional methodology for photogrammetric acquisition of the soft tissues of the face: a new clinical-instrumental protocol.

Deli R, Galantucci LM, Laino A, D'Alessio R, Di Gioia E, Savastano C, Lavecchia F, Percoco G - Prog Orthod (2013)

The principle of triangulation as used for digital close-range photogrammetry. CS2 and CS3, camera stations; h, α, β, distance and angles between the cameras; b, calculated z distance of the single point from the cameras.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384937&req=5

Fig1: The principle of triangulation as used for digital close-range photogrammetry. CS2 and CS3, camera stations; h, α, β, distance and angles between the cameras; b, calculated z distance of the single point from the cameras.
Mentions: There are various methods for the acquisition of data relating to the shape of a 3D object [3–6]. Digital close-range photogrammetry is suitable for use in medicine. The 3D information is obtained through the acquisition and comparison of a number of specific photographic images [7–9] that make use of the principle of triangulation, as shown schematically in Figure 1. For each couple of camera stations (CS2, CS3) rigidly positioned in the space, for each corresponding point P(x, y) in the two images, it is possible to calculate the third coordinate z as the value of b in the triangle, knowing the distance and angles between the cameras (h, α, β).Figure 1

Bottom Line: The analysis was carried out according to a new clinical-instrumental protocol that comprises four distinct phases: (1) setup of portable equipment in the space in which field analysis will be performed, (2) preparation of the subject and spatial positioning, (3) scanning of the subject with different facial expressions, and (4) treatment and processing of data.The protocol was tested on a sample comprising 66 female subjects (64 Caucasian, 1 Ethiopian, and 1 Brazilian) who were the finalists of an Italian national beauty contest in 2010.This standardization allows the mapping of the subjects to be carried out following the same conditions in a reliable and fast process for all of the subjects scanned.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Studio Associato di Odontoiatria dei Dottori Di Gioia, Bari 70122, Italy. eliana.digioia@teletu.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study is to define an acquisition protocol that is clear, precise, repeatable, simple, fast and that is useful for analysis of the anthropometric characteristics of the soft tissue of the face.

Methods: The analysis was carried out according to a new clinical-instrumental protocol that comprises four distinct phases: (1) setup of portable equipment in the space in which field analysis will be performed, (2) preparation of the subject and spatial positioning, (3) scanning of the subject with different facial expressions, and (4) treatment and processing of data. The protocol was tested on a sample comprising 66 female subjects (64 Caucasian, 1 Ethiopian, and 1 Brazilian) who were the finalists of an Italian national beauty contest in 2010. To illustrate the potential of the method, we report here the measurements and full analysis that were carried out on the facial model of one of the subjects who was scanned.

Results: This new protocol for the acquisition of faces is shown to be fast (phase 1, about 1 h; phase 2, about 1.5 min; phase 3, about 1.5 min; phase 4, about 15 min), simple (phases 1 to 3 requiring a short operator training period; only phase 4 requires expert operators), repeatable (with direct palpation of anatomical landmarks and marking of their positions on the face, the problem of identification of these same landmarks on the digital model is solved), reliable and precise (average precision of measurements, 0.5 to 0.6 mm over the entire surface of the face).

Conclusions: This standardization allows the mapping of the subjects to be carried out following the same conditions in a reliable and fast process for all of the subjects scanned.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus