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Unprecedented genomic diversity of RNA viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense RNA viruses.

Li CX, Shi M, Tian JH, Lin XD, Kang YJ, Chen LJ, Qin XC, Xu J, Holmes EC, Zhang YZ - Elife (2015)

Bottom Line: Although arthropods are important viral vectors, the biodiversity of arthropod viruses, as well as the role that arthropods have played in viral origins and evolution, is unclear.We similarly documented a remarkable diversity of genome structures in arthropod viruses, including a putative circular form, that sheds new light on the evolution of genome organization.Hence, arthropods are a major reservoir of viral genetic diversity and have likely been central to viral evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Although arthropods are important viral vectors, the biodiversity of arthropod viruses, as well as the role that arthropods have played in viral origins and evolution, is unclear. Through RNA sequencing of 70 arthropod species we discovered 112 novel viruses that appear to be ancestral to much of the documented genetic diversity of negative-sense RNA viruses, a number of which are also present as endogenous genomic copies. With this greatly enriched diversity we revealed that arthropods contain viruses that fall basal to major virus groups, including the vertebrate-specific arenaviruses, filoviruses, hantaviruses, influenza viruses, lyssaviruses, and paramyxoviruses. We similarly documented a remarkable diversity of genome structures in arthropod viruses, including a putative circular form, that sheds new light on the evolution of genome organization. Hence, arthropods are a major reservoir of viral genetic diversity and have likely been central to viral evolution.

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Transmission of negative-sense RNA viruses in arthropods andnon-arthropods.Three types of transmission cycle are shown: (i) those between arthropods andplants are shaded green; (ii) those between arthropods and vertebrates areshaded yellow; and (iii) those that are vertebrate-only are shaded red. Virusesassociated with each transmission type are also indicated.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05378.022
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fig12: Transmission of negative-sense RNA viruses in arthropods andnon-arthropods.Three types of transmission cycle are shown: (i) those between arthropods andplants are shaded green; (ii) those between arthropods and vertebrates areshaded yellow; and (iii) those that are vertebrate-only are shaded red. Virusesassociated with each transmission type are also indicated.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05378.022

Mentions: Viral infections in vertebrates and plants can be divided into two main categories: (i)arthropod-dependent infections, in which there is spill-over to non-arthropods but wherecontinued virus transmission still requires arthropods, and (ii) arthropod-independentinfections, in which the virus has shifted its host range to circulate among vertebratesexclusively (Figure 12). The first category ofinfections is often associated with major vector-borne diseases (Zhang et al., 2011, 2012). Given the biodiversity of arthropod viruses documented here, it seemslikely that arthropod-independent viruses were ultimately derived fromarthropod-dependent infections, with subsequent adaptation to vertebrate-onlytransmission (Figure 12).10.7554/eLife.05378.022Figure 12.Transmission of negative-sense RNA viruses in arthropods andnon-arthropods.


Unprecedented genomic diversity of RNA viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense RNA viruses.

Li CX, Shi M, Tian JH, Lin XD, Kang YJ, Chen LJ, Qin XC, Xu J, Holmes EC, Zhang YZ - Elife (2015)

Transmission of negative-sense RNA viruses in arthropods andnon-arthropods.Three types of transmission cycle are shown: (i) those between arthropods andplants are shaded green; (ii) those between arthropods and vertebrates areshaded yellow; and (iii) those that are vertebrate-only are shaded red. Virusesassociated with each transmission type are also indicated.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05378.022
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4384744&req=5

fig12: Transmission of negative-sense RNA viruses in arthropods andnon-arthropods.Three types of transmission cycle are shown: (i) those between arthropods andplants are shaded green; (ii) those between arthropods and vertebrates areshaded yellow; and (iii) those that are vertebrate-only are shaded red. Virusesassociated with each transmission type are also indicated.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05378.022
Mentions: Viral infections in vertebrates and plants can be divided into two main categories: (i)arthropod-dependent infections, in which there is spill-over to non-arthropods but wherecontinued virus transmission still requires arthropods, and (ii) arthropod-independentinfections, in which the virus has shifted its host range to circulate among vertebratesexclusively (Figure 12). The first category ofinfections is often associated with major vector-borne diseases (Zhang et al., 2011, 2012). Given the biodiversity of arthropod viruses documented here, it seemslikely that arthropod-independent viruses were ultimately derived fromarthropod-dependent infections, with subsequent adaptation to vertebrate-onlytransmission (Figure 12).10.7554/eLife.05378.022Figure 12.Transmission of negative-sense RNA viruses in arthropods andnon-arthropods.

Bottom Line: Although arthropods are important viral vectors, the biodiversity of arthropod viruses, as well as the role that arthropods have played in viral origins and evolution, is unclear.We similarly documented a remarkable diversity of genome structures in arthropod viruses, including a putative circular form, that sheds new light on the evolution of genome organization.Hence, arthropods are a major reservoir of viral genetic diversity and have likely been central to viral evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Although arthropods are important viral vectors, the biodiversity of arthropod viruses, as well as the role that arthropods have played in viral origins and evolution, is unclear. Through RNA sequencing of 70 arthropod species we discovered 112 novel viruses that appear to be ancestral to much of the documented genetic diversity of negative-sense RNA viruses, a number of which are also present as endogenous genomic copies. With this greatly enriched diversity we revealed that arthropods contain viruses that fall basal to major virus groups, including the vertebrate-specific arenaviruses, filoviruses, hantaviruses, influenza viruses, lyssaviruses, and paramyxoviruses. We similarly documented a remarkable diversity of genome structures in arthropod viruses, including a putative circular form, that sheds new light on the evolution of genome organization. Hence, arthropods are a major reservoir of viral genetic diversity and have likely been central to viral evolution.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus